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=Hoan

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: huc
  latlong: -23.88,24.75  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ǀqhà ’a kyxái
  Gloss: Women PROG dance
  Translation: ‘the women are dancing’ (Collins and Gruber:17).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   02_Verb Subject No Chris Collins Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Titi ʼa ʼám ǁkà“e
  Gloss: Titi PROG eat meat
  Translation: ‘Titi is eating meat’ (Collins and Gruber: 17).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   04_Object Verb No Chris Collins Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Titi ʼa ʼám ǁkà“e
  Gloss: Titi PROG eat meat
  Translation: ‘Titi is eating meat’ (Collins and Gruber: 17).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   06_Subject Object Verb No Chris Collins Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Chris Collins Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Chris Collins Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Chris Collins Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Chris Collins Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ma ’a kyà“o ke ’àm j̆ĭu
  Gloss: 1sg PROG go with 1sg.GEN wife
  Translation: “I am going with my wife” (Collins and Gruber: 110).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: kyěamà ʼa kì !kôa za
  Gloss: dog COP LK house by
  Translation: ‘the dog is by the house’ (Collins and Gruber: 114).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   13_Adjective Noun No Chris Collins Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ma ǂkùũ -’a ǁnȁõ kı́-kúri
  Gloss: 1SG buy -PFV shoe old
  Translation: “I bought an old shoe” (Collins and Gruber: 145).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
  Words: kx’ù -qà kı́- zȁ -n|ne
  Gloss: pot -PL PL- new -PL
  Translation: “new pots” (Collins and Gruber: 144).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   15_Numeral Noun No Chris Collins Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ǂkı̆-ǀkà’a ʘkoa
  Gloss: bird-DIM.PL two
  Translation: “two birds” (Collins and Gruber: 149).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Chris Collins Forum
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ǁnȁõ-qà ha kı̀ kı́-šù -n|ne
  Gloss: shoe-PL this EMPH PL-nice -PL
  Translation: “These shoes are nice” (Collins and Gruber: 128)
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Comment: A NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: example is in databae, but will have to be linked here after migration to terraling. (POSSESSOR IS LEXICAL, NOT PRONOMINAL)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ǂ’àmkȍe šı̏ kyěamà
  Gloss: person POSS dog
  Translation: “the person’s dog” (Collins and Gruber: 98).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   20_Noun Possessor No Chris Collins Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ’àm kı́- ǃkôa qaẽ
  Gloss: 1SG.GEN PL- house three
  Translation: “my three houses” (Collins and Gruber: 103).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Chris Collins Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: kx’ù -qà kı́- zȁ -n|ne
  Gloss: pot -PL PL- new -PL
  Translation: “new pots” (Collins and Gruber: 144).
  Comment: There are only a small number of cases of direct attributive adjectival modification. These attributive adjectives include =Hoan translations of adjectives such as “female”, “male”, “old” and “new”. Other cases in which an adjective modifies a noun are expressed through a relative clause with a predicate adjective (refer to A02). The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: gȍme -qà ’a m̀ kı́-ǃkà’a
  Gloss: cow -PL which REL PL-red
  Translation: “red cows” (Collins and Gruber: 143)
  Comment: “Most examples where an adjective modifies a noun in English, such as “a big house” or “an ugly man” are expressed inǂHȍã as relative clauses with a predicate adjective” (Collins and Gruber: 142). The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
  Words: ǂkı̆-sı̏ ǂhà“ma -nǀne kı́- ǃkà’a
  Gloss: bird-DIM wing -PL PL- red
  Translation: “The bird’s wings are red” (Collins and Gruber: 54).
  Comment: "We analyze these forms as predicate adjectives, despite the absence of a copular verb (cf., “I am happy.” in English), because they cannot be put into either the progressive or the perfective (which distinguishes them from verbs)" (Collins and Gruber: 55). The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Chris Collins Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Chris Collins Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Chris Collins Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ma ’a ǂ’éẽ xore ǁkà“e ǀkò’a
  Gloss: 1SG PROG think that meat absent
  Translation: “I think there is no meat” (Collins and Gruber: 207).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Chris Collins Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: qà“a qo xú yȁ, yà kúe ’a nǀni’ni
  Gloss: 1PL.EXCL FUT leave 3SG 3SG because PROG refuse
  Translation: “We will leave him, because he refuses” (Collins and Gruber: 205).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Chris Collins Forum
   Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Chris Collins Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: kyěamà qaẽ
  Gloss: dog three
  Translation: “three dogs” (Collins and Gruber: 148).
  Comment: =Hoan does not have definite/indefinite articles and is solely context dependent (Collins and Gruber: 96). The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Chris Collins Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ma i ʘkoa ʘ’ú ʘkoa/qaẽ ha
  Gloss: 1SG PST kill duiker two/three this
  Translation: “I killed these two/three duikers” (Collins and Gruber: 150).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
  Words: ’àm kı́- ǃkôa qaẽ
  Gloss: 1SG.GEN PL- house three
  Translation: “my three houses” (Collins and Gruber: 103).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Chris Collins Forum
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ma i ʘkoa ʘ’ú ʘkoa/qaẽ ha
  Gloss: 1SG PST kill duiker two/three this
  Translation: “I killed these two/three duikers” (Collins and Gruber: 150).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Chris Collins Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Chris Collins Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Chris Collins Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Chris Collins Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Chris Collins Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Titi ǀhȍ’õ ’a ’ám ǁkà“e
  Gloss: Titi NEG PROG eat meat
  Translation: “Titi is not eating meat” (Collins and Gruber: 20).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Chris Collins Forum
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ’ám -qà ’a / ’ám -qà |kò’a
  Gloss: food -PL COP / food -PL absent
  Translation: “There is food.” / “There is no food” (Collins and Gruber: 180).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Chris Collins Forum
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ù xà ’a cı́ ʘ’ú jȁ ha
  Gloss: 2SG QF PROG see duiker male this
  Translation: “Do you see this male duiker?” (Collins and Gruber: 146).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Chris Collins Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ma i ʘkoa ʘ’ú ʘkoa/qaẽ ha
  Gloss: 1SG PST kill duiker two/three this
  Translation: “I killed these two/three duikers” (Collins and Gruber: 150).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Chris Collins Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Chris Collins Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: ʘ’ú ’a ’ám ǀqhǔi-qà yà
  Gloss: duiker PROG eat grass-PL Q
  Translation: “Is the duiker eating grass?” (Collins and Gruber: 211).
  Comment: “To form a yes-no question, the question particle yà is added at the end of the sentence” (Collins and Gruber: 211). The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Chris Collins Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Chris Collins Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Chris Collins Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Chris Collins Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: čo’a xà ’a ʘhǒa yà / ee, yȁ ’a ʘhǒa
  Gloss: rain QF PROG fall Q / yes, 3SG PROG rain
  Translation: “Is the rain falling?” / “Yes, it is raining” (Collins and Gruber: 212).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Chris Collins Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Chris Collins Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Chris Collins Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Chris Collins Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Chris Collins Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Chris Collins Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Chris Collins Forum