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Akan-Twi

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: aka
  latlong: 6.6666,-1.616271  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi kɔ sukuu.
  Gloss: Kofi go school
  Translation: Kofi goes to school
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi nni kraman bi.
  Gloss: Kofi Neg.have dog BI
  Translation: There is a ceratin dog that Kofie does not have
  Comment: dog BI > neg
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ 02_Verb Subject No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: 1. ∗ kɔ Kofi sukuu 2. *kɔ m- maa mmienu sukuu
  Gloss: 1. go Kofi school 2. go ol- woman two school
  Translation: intended: 1. Kofi goes to school/ 2. two women go to school
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ 03_Verb Object Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi bɔ -ɔ ballo.
  Gloss: Kofi play -PST ball
  Translation: Kofi played ball
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   04_Object Verb No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi di -i aduane
  Gloss: Kofi eat -PST food
  Translation: Kofi ate food
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: ∗ Kofi ballo bɔ - ɔ.
  Gloss: Kofi ball play -PST
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   07_Verb Subject Object No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: ∗ ballo Kofi bɔ -ɔ
  Gloss: ball Kofi play -PST
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   10_Object Verb Subject No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: .∗mu dan no / OK: dan no mu
  Gloss: *in house DEF/ OK house DEF in
  Comment: 
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: sika da pono no so.
  Gloss: money sleep table DEF on
  Translation: There is money on the table
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words:  ∗ Fitaa ntoma
  Gloss: *white cloth
  Comment: Only nationality adjectives precede the noun.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   14_Noun Adjective Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: ∗ mmiensa nhoma no
  Gloss: three pl.book Def
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words:  nhoma mmiensa
  Gloss: pl.book three
  Comment: The noun is plural.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   17_Demonstrative Noun Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   19_Possessor Noun Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   20_Noun Possessor No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: 1. ɛnam keseɛ no 2. N- nam a- keseɛ no
  Gloss: 1. meat big Deg 2. pl-meat pl- big Def
  Translation: The big piece of meat 2. The big pieces of meat
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: 1. Obaa no yɛ kɔkɔɔ. 2. M- maa no yɛ nkɔnkɔ nkɔnkɔɔ
  Gloss: 1. woman Def Cop red. 2. pl- woman Def Cop pl- red pl red
  Translation: 1. The lady is light-skinned. 2. ‘The ladies are light-skinned’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   A 03_Degree Adjective No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words:  Obaa no yɛ keseɛ paa.
  Gloss: woman Def Cop big Deg
  Translation: The woman is very big
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: M- maa mmienu wɔ dan no mu.
  Gloss: pl- woman two be.located room Def in
  Translation: There are two women in the room
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: M- maa mmienu bi wɔ dan no mu.
  Gloss: pl- woman two Indef(spec) be.located room Def in
  Translation: Some specific two women are in the room
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Me num –m nsuo.
  Gloss: 1SG drink –Pst water
  Translation: I drank water
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Me num –m nsuo bi.
  Gloss: 1SG drink –Pst water BI
  Translation: I drank some water
  Comment: Bi has wide scope with respect to negation, intensional predicates and other nominal quantifiers. But it has narrow scope with respect to the conditional. Bi can combine with both plural and singular nouns and also with numerals.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi a- n- num -m nsuo bi nanso ɔ- num
  Gloss: Kofi Perf. Neg-drink –Pst water BI but 3Sg- drank Voltic
  Translation: ‘There is some water Kofi did not drink but he drank Voltic’ (cannot mean Kofif did not drink any water.
  Comment: Bi> Neg, *Neg>bi. Bi has wide scope in respect to negation, intensional predicates and other nominal quantifiers. But it has narrow scope with respect to the conditional. Bi can combine with both plural and singular nouns and also with numerals.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Me fa -a nsa no
  Gloss: 1SG take –Pst wine Def
  Translation: ‘I took the wine’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi wɔ kraman
  Gloss: Kofi have sg.dog
  Translation: Kofi have sg.dog
  Comment: ‘Kofi has a dog.’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Me fa -a nsa no
  Gloss: 1SG take –Pst wine Def
  Translation: ‘I took the wine’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi bu -u dua no.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst tree Def
  Translation: Kofi fell the tree
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi bu -u nua.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst pl.tree
  Translation: ‘Kofi fell trees’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi wɔ kraman bi.
  Gloss:  Kofi have dog BI
  Translation: Kofi has a particular dog
  Comment: This is a specific indefinite reading
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi bu -u nua bi.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst pl.tree BI
  Translation: 'Kofi fell some specific trees
  Comment: Takes wide scope and have specific/referential meaning
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi bu -u nua no.
  Gloss: Kofi break- Pst pl.tree def
  Translation: ‘Kofi fell the trees’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi hu -u awia .
  Gloss: Kofi see -Pst sun
  Translation: ‘Kofi saw the sun.’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Kofi hu -u awia no.
  Gloss: Kofi see -Pst sun Def
  Translation: ‘Kofi saw the sun.’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Me frɛ -ɛ Kofi.
  Gloss:  1SG call –Pst Kofi
  Translation: I called Kofi
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w08c Proper names in object position can have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Me frɛ -ɛ Kofi no
  Gloss: 1SG call –Pst Kofi Def
  Translation: I called that Kofi
  Comment: When a proper noun is used with the definite determiner, it has a derogatory interpretation.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Me frɛ -ɛ Kofi no mu.
  Gloss:  1SG call –Pst Kofi Def pl.
  Translation:  ‘I called Kofi and company.’
  Comment: When the proper name is used with a plural (associative plural) and a definite article, it is not derogatory. In spoken Akan, the no can be dropped.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: ɔmmo gye -e Kofi no
  Gloss: 3PL collect - Pst Kofi Def
  Translation: ‘They accepted Kofi’
  Comment: It has a derogatory interpretation.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w09a Order Art-PN in object position No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: *Me frɛ -ɛ no Kofi
  Gloss: 1SG call –Pst Def Kofi
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: * Me- hu -u Togo -ni John no
  Gloss: *1SG- see –Pst Togo -person John Det
  Translation: Even for nationality adjectives, which come before the noun, it has to come after the proper noun.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Me- hu -u John Togo -ni no
  Gloss: 1SG- see –Pst John Togo -person Det.
  Translation: ‘I saw John, the Togolese. I saw the Togolese John.'
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Me- hu -u John tumtum no
  Gloss: 1SG- see –Pst John black Def.
  Translation: ‘I saw the dark John.’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: *Fa no nsuo hyɛ fridge no mu
  Gloss: Take Def water put fridge no mu
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Fa nsuo no hyɛ fridge no mu
  Gloss: Take water Def put fridge Def in
  Translation: Put the water in the fridge!
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Me- hyia maame no ɛnora.
  Gloss: 1SG- meet woman Def yesterday
  Translation: I met the woman yesterday
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Me ma -a n- kraman no aduane.
  Gloss:  1SG give –Pst pl- dog the food
  Translation: I gave the dogs food
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Aberantie mepaakyew bra ha.
  Gloss: Young.man please come here!
  Translation: Young man, please come here’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Ama, mepaakyew bra ha.
  Gloss: Ama, please come here
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
+ w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
  Words: Mmerantie mepaakyew mo bra ha.
  Gloss: pl.Young.man 2Pl come.IMP here
  Translation: ‘Youngman, please come here’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No AUGUSTINA OWUSU Forum