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Albanian

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: alb
  latlong: 41.326,19.816  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Beni iku.
  Gloss: Ben.the left
  Translation: Ben left.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Erdhi Madona.
  Gloss: came Madonna
  Translation: Madonna came/arrived.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Eva bleu akullore.
  Gloss: Eva bought ice-cream
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 04_Object Verb No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: #akullore bleva
  Gloss: ice-cream bought-1SG
  Translation: I bought (an) ice-cream
  Comment: his is bad in a ‘neutral’ (e.g. out-of-the-blue) context only, but fine in a context such as ‘What did you buy?
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words:  Eva bleu akullore
  Gloss: Eva bought ice-cream
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: #Eva akullore bleu.
  Gloss: Eva ice-cream bought
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Comment: this is bad in a ‘neutral’ (e.g. out-of-the-blue) context but fine in a context such as ‘What did Eva buy?’
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 07_Verb Subject Object Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Bleu Eva akullore.
  Gloss: bought Eva ice-cream
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Bleu akullore Eva.
  Gloss: bought ice-cream Eva
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *Akullore Eva bleu.
  Gloss: ice-cream Eva bought
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Comment: compare with 04; i.e. if the subject is dropped, there are non-neutral contexts where this is fine
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: #Akullore bleu Eva.
  Gloss: ice-cream bought Eva
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Comment: this is bad in a ‘neutral’ context, but fine in a context such as ‘What did Eva buy?’
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Me kënaqësi
  Gloss: with pleasure
  Translation: with pleasure
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: rrugës pranë
  Gloss:  road-the near
  Translation: by the road
  Comment: not a terribly productive pattern but it obviously exists
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 13_Adjective Noun No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: #e shpejta makinë
  Gloss: agr fast-the car
  Translation: the fast car
  Comment: this order is always marked in Albanian
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: makina e shpejtë
  Gloss: car-the agr fast
  Translation: the fast car
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: (të) pestë librat
  Gloss: (the) five books
  Translation: the five books
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 16_Noun Numeral No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *libra pesë
  Gloss: books five
  Translation: five books
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: kjo vajzë
  Gloss: this girl
  Translation: this girl
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words:  *vajzë kjo
  Gloss: girl this
  Translation: this girl
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *I Evës vëlla
  Gloss: agr(M,SG) Eva-GEN.F brother-the(NOM.M)
  Translation: Eva's brother
  Comment: becomes slightly better with contrastive focus on the possessor.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: vëllai i Evës
  Gloss: brother-the(NOM) agr(M,SG) Eva-DAT
  Translation:  Eva’s brother
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Dalina Kallulli this pattern is only productive with relational, human nouns Forum
  Words:  im vëlla
  Gloss: my brother
  Translation: my brother
  Comment: this pattern is only productive with relational, human nouns
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: libri im/yt …
  Gloss: book-the my/your ...
  Translation: my/your book
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: një libër i kuq
  Gloss: a book agr(M,SG) red
  Translation:  a red book
  Comment: libër’ is masculine (M)
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
  Words: një shami e kuqe
  Gloss: a handkerchief agr(F,SG) red
  Translation: a red handkerchief
  Comment: ‘shami’ is feminine (F)
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Ky libër është i kuq.
  Gloss:  this.NOM,M,SG book is agr(NOM,M,SG) red
  Translation: This book is red.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words:  shumë besnik
  Gloss: very loyal
  Translation: very loyal
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: një kopsht i madh shumë
  Gloss: a garden agr(M,SG) big very
  Translation:  a very big garden
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Patatet ishin zier.
  Gloss: potatoes.the were cooked
  Translation: Potatoes were/had been boiled.
  Comment: both verbal and adjectival passive
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
  Words:  Beni kishte zier patatet.
  Gloss:  Ben.the had boiled potatoes.the
  Translation: Peter had boiled the potatoes.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Thashë se Beni iku.
  Gloss: said.1SG that Ben.the left.3SG
  Translation: I said that Ben left.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *Thashë Beni iku se.
  Gloss: said.1SG Ben.the left.3SG that
  Translation: I said that Ben left.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Nuk shkova sepse isha e zënë.
  Gloss: NEG went.1SG because was.1SG agr(F,SG) busy
  Translation: I didn’t go because I was busy.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *Beni iku ngrënë pa.
  Gloss: Ben.the left-3SG eaten.PART without
  Translation: Ben left without eating.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Extra Examples No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Në rrugë ka dy pemë.
  Gloss: in street has two trees
  Translation: There are two trees in the street
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *Në rrugë ka pemë dy.
  Gloss: in street has trees two
  Translation: There are two trees in the street
  Comment: This is fine with a comma intonation between pemë and dy
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: (Të) Tre pakot arritën dje.
  Gloss: (the) three parcels.the arrived yesterday
  Translation: (All) the three parcels arrived yesterday
  Comment:  të preceding the numeral denotes totality and can be rendered in English either as ‘the’ or as ‘all’
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *Pakot tre arritën dje
  Gloss: parcels.the three arrived yesterday
  Translation:  The three parcels arrived yesterday
  Comment: This is fine with a comma intonation between pakot and tre
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Këto tre pakot arritën dje.
  Gloss: these three parcels(.the) arrived yesterday
  Translation: These three parcels arrived yesterday
  Comment: The definite determiner is optional
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Nuk fola. / S’fola.
  Gloss: not spoke.1S / not’spoke.1S
  Translation:  I did not speak.
  Comment: The negative particles nuk and/or s’ are used when the verb is in Indicative and Admirative mood. Mos is used with Subjunctives, Imperatives, Optatives. Pa is used with Gerunds.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words:  kjo e bukur / bukura vajzë
  Gloss: this(F,SG) agr(F,SG) pretty / pretty.the girl
  Translation: this pretty girl
  Comment:  This feels slightly marked and/or archaic/dialectal though.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
  Words:  këto tre gra
  Gloss: these(F) three women(F)
  Translation:  these three women
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: ky libër i bukur
  Gloss: this(M,SG) book agr(M,SG) good
  Translation:  this good book
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *(një) libër i bukur ky
  Gloss: CL,DAT is(ADM) (a) book agr good this
  Translation: this good book
  Comment: This is fine if rendered as ‘A good one, this book!
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words:  *(një) libër ky i bukur
  Gloss:  book this agr good
  Translation: a good one, this book
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *I bukur ky libër
  Gloss: agr(M,SG) good(.the) this book
  Translation: this good book
  Comment: his is fine with stress on the adjective. In this case, it would mean: ‘a good one, this book’
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: *I bukur libër ky
  Gloss: agr(M,SG) good book this(M,SG)
  Translation: this good book
  Comment: This pattern is grammatical only under a ‘leftward movement’ construal of the NP/np i bukur libër wrt the demonstrative, in which case it would mean: ‘a good book, this one’.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Dalina Kallulli This value is tricky. It is set to no because this pattern is only possible with an intonation break between the noun and the numeral, ungrammatical otherwise Forum
  Words: I njoh këta fëmijë (që) të tre.
  Gloss:  them(Cl,ACC) know-I.SG these children.the (that) the three
  Translation: I know these kids, all (the) three (of them)
  Comment: This pattern is only possible with an intonation break between the noun and the numeral, ungrammatical otherwise
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: të treja këto studente
  Gloss: the three these students
  Translation: (all) these three (female) students
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: A erdhi Beni?
  Gloss: Q came.3SG Ben.the(NOM)
  Translation: Did Ben come?
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Comment: Only Gheg but not Standard Albanian allows for a final polar Q-marker.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Beni (a) erdhi?
  Gloss: Ben.the(NOM) (Q-marker) came.3SG
  Translation: Did Ben come?
  Comment: Not quite sure: the subject could be left-dislocated here, especially since the (optional) polarity Q-marker a can intervene. This is why I set it to no.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Erdhi Beni?
  Gloss: came.3SG Ben.the(NOM,SG)
  Translation: Did Ben come?
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Ka ardhur Ana? A: Po.
  Gloss: Q: has-3.SG come Ann-the(NOM) A: Yes.
  Translation: Q: Has Ann come? A: Yes.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Erdhi Ana? A: Erdhi.
  Gloss: Q: came-3SG Ann-the(NOM) A: came-3SG.
  Translation: Q: Did Ann come?
  Comment: A: Yes, she came.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Ka ardhur Ana? A: Ka ardhur.
  Gloss: Q: has-3.SG come Ann-the(NOM) A: has-3.SG come
  Translation: Q: Has Ann come? A: Yes (lit 'has come')
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Erdhi Ana? A: Ka erdhi.
  Gloss: Q: came-3SG Ann-the(NOM) A: yes, came-3SG.
  Translation: Q: Did Ann come? A: Yes, she did (come).
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Erdhi njeri? A: Erdhi (dikush).
  Gloss:   Q: came-3.SG anyone A: came-3.SG (someone)
  Translation: Q: Did anyone come? A: Yes, (someone did) (lit 'came (someone)')
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Erdhi njeri? A: Jo.
  Gloss: Q: came-3.SG anyone A: No.
  Translation: Q: Did anyone come? A: No.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Dalina Kallulli Forum
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Bleve akullore? A: Nuk bleva.
  Gloss: Q: bought-2.SG ice-cream A: Not bought-1.SG
  Translation: Did you buy ice-cream? A: No. (lit. 'not bought')
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation NA Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Nuk ka ardhur Ana? A: ?Po *(, nuk ka ardhur)
  Gloss: Q: not has come Ann-the(NOM) A: Yes, not has come
  Translation: Q: Has Ann not come? A: Yes (she has not come)
  Comment: Ticky! Therefore set as NA inmeantime. A 'yes' answer requires a continuation (i.e. 'has not come').
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Nuk ka ardhur Ana? A: Jo (, nuk ka ardhur)
  Gloss: Q: not has come Ann-the(NOM) A: no, not has come
  Translation: Q: Has Ann not come? A: No (she has not come)
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Nuk ka ardhur Ana? A: (Po) si jo (, ka ardhur.)
  Gloss: Q: not has come Ann-the(NOM) A: (but) how no (has come)
  Translation: Q: Has Ann not come. A: Yes (she has come).
  Comment:   the initial 'po' in the answer actually means 'but', not 'yes' in this case (it is a shortened form of 'por' which means 'but') and is only optional, as is the continuation (i.e. 'has come')
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
+ Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle Yes Dalina Kallulli Forum
  Words: Q: Nuk ka ardhur Ana? A: Po, (po) si jo.
  Gloss: Q: not has come Ann-the(NOM) A: Yes, (but) how no
  Translation: Q: Has Ann not arrived. A: Yes (she has arrived).
  Comment: Polarity reversing '(po) si jo' is compatible with the standard affirmative particle 'po'. Notice that the two do not form an intonational unit.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Dalina Kallulli Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Dalina Kallulli Forum