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Amharic

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: amh
  latlong: 9.145,40.489673  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kasa mät't'a
  Gloss: K. come.PFV.3mss
  Translation: 'Kasa came'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   02_Verb Subject No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: yɨ-näd-u-all saykɨl ɨndä-hayle
  Gloss: 3pls-ride.IPFV-3pls bicycle like-Haile
  Translation: One should ride a bicycle like Haile.
  Comment: VO order is unproductive in current Amharic and found only with impersonal constructions of the above example type where the subject is always null and identified by a third person plural agreement. -u in the above example will be deleted by labializing the preceding consonant. [example entered for GS, because of a bug in the dataentry process: to be transferred to Girma Demeke in the future)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words:  yɨ-rot'-u-all ɨndä-hayle
  Gloss: 3pls-run.IPFV-3pls-Aux like-H.
  Translation: 'one should run like Haile'
  Comment:  VO order is unproductive in current Amharic and found only with impersonal constructions of the above example type (with a PP postverbal). If there is an object, the object will follow the V and precede the PP).The subject is always null and identified by a third person plural agreement. -u in the above example will be deleted by labializing the preceding consonant. (Example entered by HK because of dataentry bug: to be transferred in the future to GD)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: mäs'haf gäzza-hu
  Gloss: book buy.PFV-1ss
  Translation: 'I bought a book'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   05_Subject Verb Object No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: saba bet gäzza-čč
  Gloss: S. house buy.PRV-3fss
  Translation: 'Saba bought a house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   07_Verb Subject Object No Girma Demeke Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: saba gänzäb all-Ø-at
  Gloss: S. money exists-3mss-3fso
  Translation: 'Saba has money', lit. 'money exists to Saba'
  Comment: OSV, as unmarked order, is found in verb-to-have and experiential constructions.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   10_Object Verb Subject No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kä-addis abäba
  Gloss: from-Addis Ababa
  Translation: 'from Addis Ababa'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Girma Demeke Forum
  Comment: Amharic has circumpositions, P ... (N/"other") but since the preposition is obligatory and the second part can be omitted, we set the value for DP P as NO, and will wait for circumpositional propert(ies) to give the value 'yes'.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: tɨnɨš lɨğğ
  Gloss: small child
  Translation: 'a small child'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   14_Noun Adjective No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: hulät mäs'haf
  Gloss: two book
  Translation: 'two books'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   16_Noun Numeral No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: ya bet
  Gloss: that house
  Translation: 'that house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: yä-kasa bet
  Gloss: yä-K. house
  Translation: 'Kasa's house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   20_Noun Possessor No Girma Demeke Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: yä-ne bet
  Gloss: yä-I house
  Translation: 'my house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: bet-e
  Gloss: house-my/1sPOSS
  Translation: 'my house'
  Comment: The suffix genitive pronouns can be considered as agreement elements but are incompatible with the possessor. The same elements appear in nominal clauses in identification to a genitive subject but in such cases we do not see incompatibility between the suffix genitive pronouns and the subject that they agree with.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: tɨlɨllɨk' lɨğğ-occ
  Gloss: big.pl child-pl
  Translation: 'big children'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: lɨğğ-occ-u tɨlɨllɨk' n-aččäw
  Gloss: child-pl-def big.pl be-3pl
  Translation: 'The children are big'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: bät'am tɨnɨš
  Gloss: very small
  Translation: 'very small'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Girma Demeke Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Girma Demeke Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kasa ɨndä-mät't'a awq-all-ähu
  Gloss: K. comp-come.PFV.3mss know.IPFV-Aux-1ss
  Translation: I know that Kasa came'
  Comment: Complementizers are placed prefixed to the subordinate verb as shown in the above example. The setting will be adjusted when the third property for complementizer placement is added.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Girma Demeke Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Girma Demeke Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Girma Demeke Forum
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: hulät mäs'haf
  Gloss: two book
  Translation: 'two books'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Girma Demeke Forum
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: hulät-u mäs'haf-očč
  Gloss: two-def book-pl
  Translation: 'the two books'
  Comment: 
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Girma Demeke Forum
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: lɨğğ-occ-u
  Gloss: child-pl-def
  Translation: 'the children'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: ɨnäzya hulät mäs'haf-occ
  Gloss: those two book-pl
  Translation: 'those two books'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Girma Demeke Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not Yes Girma Demeke Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Girma Demeke Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Girma Demeke Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Girma Demeke Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Girma Demeke Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Girma Demeke Forum
+ Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kasa al-mät't'a-m
  Gloss: K. neg-come.PFV.3mss-neg
  Translation: 'Kasa did not come'
  Comment: Amharic has negative concord. However, it is the pre-verbal negative marker that asserts negation. The post-verbal negative marker is not found in subordinate clauses.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kasa wädä-bet al-hed-ä-m
  Gloss: K. to-house neg-go.PFV-3ms-Neg
  Translation: 'Kasa did not go to home'
  Comment: Amharic has negative concord. However, it is the pre-verbal negative marker that asserts negation. The post-verbal negative marker is also found along with negative polarity items.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Girma Demeke Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Girma Demeke Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Girma Demeke Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Girma Demeke Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Girma Demeke Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Girma Demeke Forum
+ Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kasa astämari aydälläm
  Gloss: K. teacher be.neg.3ms
  Translation: 'Kasa is not a teacher'
  Comment: Although the a--m in aydälläm are identical with the negative markers in the imperfective verb, aydälläm is a suppletive form for the copula näw 'he is not' and the stem *-däll- is unproductive.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: ɨssu kasa aydälläm
  Gloss: he K. be.neg.3ms
  Translation: 'He is not Kasa'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Girma Demeke Forum
+ Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kasa bet yälläm
  Gloss: K. house exist.neg.3mss
  Translation: 'Kasa is not in the house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: ya tɨnɨš lɨğğ
  Gloss: that small child
  Translation: 'that small child'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Girma Demeke Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Girma Demeke Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Girma Demeke Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: kasa astämari näw wäy
  Gloss: K. teacher be.3ms Q
  Translation: 'Is Kasa a teacher?'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Girma Demeke Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Comment: Polar question are often formed by a rising intonation on the last syllable of the verb which also occupies sentence final position.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Girma Demeke Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Girma Demeke Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Girma Demeke Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: A. kasa astämari näw? B. awo
  Gloss: K. teacher be.3ms Q yes
  Translation: A. 'Is Kasa a teacher?' B. yes
  Comment: Please assume that there is a rising intonation on the copula.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: A. kasa yɨ-mt'a? B. yɨ-mt'a
  Gloss: A. Kasa 3ms-come.Jussive B. 3ms-come.Jussive
  Translation:  A. Shall Kasa come? B. lit. '(let he) come'
  Comment: Affirmative answer by bare verb is not possible when the verb is in the perfective and imperfective aspects. The verb always needs an auxiliary as we can see in (Q11). Affirmative answer by bare verb form is okay when the verb is in jussive mood (as in the example here) and with the copula n- and the auxiliary all- 'to exist'. [entered by HK for GD because of bug in program. Will be transferred to GB after migration]
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: A. kasa yɨ-mt'a? B. yɨ-mt'a
  Gloss: A. Kasa 3ms-come.jussive B. 3ms-come.jussive
  Translation: A. 'Shall Kasa come? B. lit. '(let he) come'.
  Comment: Affirmative answer by bare verb is not possible when the verb is in the perfective and imperfective aspects. In these aspects the verb always needs an auxiliary as we can see in (Q11). Affirmative answer by bare verb form is okay when the verb is in a jussive mood (as in the example here) and with the copula n- and the auxiliary all- 'to exist'.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: A. kasa astämari näw? B. näw
  Gloss: A. Kasa teacher be.3ms B. be.3ms
  Translation: A. 'Is Kasa a teacher?' B. lit. 'is'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: A. timatim gäzt-äš-all? B. gäzc'-e-all-hu
  Gloss: A. tomatoe buy.gerund-3fs-Aux? B. buy.gerund-1ss-Aux-1ss
  Translation: A. 'Did you buy tomatoe?' B. lit. '(I) have bought'
  Comment: Note that Amharic is a pro-drop language and has obligatory subject agreement.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: A. kasa astämari näw? B. awo näw
  Gloss: K. teacher be.3ms yes be.3ms
  Translation: A. 'Is Kasa a teacher? B. 'yes he is'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Girma Demeke Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: A. manɨm al-mätt'a-m? B. mätt'-o-all/ al-mätt'a-m
  Gloss: any one neg-comPFV.3ms-neg come-3ms-Aux/ neg-comPFV.3ms-neg
  Translation: A. Did anyone came?' B. lit. 'came'/ 'didn't come'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Girma Demeke Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Girma Demeke Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Girma Demeke Forum
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words:  A. kasa hed-ä? B. al-hed-ä-m
  Gloss: A. Kasa go.PFV-3ms B. Neg-go.PFV-3ms-neg
  Translation: A. Did Kasa leave? B. lit. '(he) goes not'
  Comment: As noted earlier subject agreement on the verb is obligatory in Amharic.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Girma Demeke Forum
  Words: A. kasa al-mätt'a-m? B. awo al-mätt'a-m
  Gloss: K. neg-comePFV.3ms-neg yes neg-comePFV.3ms-neg
  Translation: A. 'Did not Kasa come?' B. 'No he didn't', lit. 'yes, he didn't''
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Girma Demeke Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Girma Demeke Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Girma Demeke Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Girma Demeke Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Girma Demeke Forum
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman unique objects (moon, stars) can be bare (Paul, 2000, (53a, 53b)"" Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum