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Ancient Greek

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: grc
  latlong: 37.97918,23.716647  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: Kúklo:ps hód’ érkhetai
  Gloss: Cyclops-NOM DEM-NOM.M come-PRS.3SG
  Translation: Here comes the Cyclops
  Comment: litt. 'Cyclops this comes' (Euripides, Cyclops, 193)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: Aristó:numos Methudrieùs érkhetai
  Gloss: A-NOM M-NOM come-PRS.3SG
  Translation: Aristonumos of Methydrion is coming
  Comment: érkhetai:historical present (Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.6.20)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: érkhetai autè: e: Mandáne: pròs tòn patéra
  Gloss: come-PRS.3SG herself ART-NOM.F.SG M-NOM to ART-ACC.M.SG father-ACC.SG
  Translation: Mandane herself went to her father
  Comment: érkhetai:historical present (Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.3.1)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: e: hûs esthíei toùs ófeis
  Gloss: ART-NOM.F.SG sow-NOM.SG eat-PRS.3SG ART-ACC.M.PL snake-ACC.PL
  Translation: Sows eats snakes
  Comment: Aristoteles, Historia animalium, Bekker page 609b line 30
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ho zōgráfos klínēn poieî
  Gloss: ART-NOM.M.SG painter-NOM.SG bed-ACC.SG make-IND.PRS.3SG
  Translation: ‘the painter makes a couch’
  Comment: Pl. Republic 596e
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: e: hûs esthíei toùs ófeis
  Gloss: ART-NOM.F.SG sow-NOM.SG eat-PRS.3SG ART-ACC.M.PL snake-ACC.PL
  Translation: Sows eats snakes
  Comment: Aristoteles, Historia animalium, Bekker page 609b line 30
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ho zōgráfos klínēn poieî
  Gloss: ART-NOM.M.SG painter-NOM.SG bed-ACC.SG make-IND.PRS.3SG
  Translation: ‘the painter makes a couch’
  Comment: Pl. Republic 596e
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 07_Verb Subject Object Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: misoûsi, fēsín, Athēnaîoi toùs daneízontas
  Gloss: hate-IND.PRS.3PL say-IND.PRS.3SG A-NOM.M.PL art-ACC.M.PL money-lenders-ACC.NOM.PL
  Translation: ‘The Athenians, he says, hate money-lenders’
  Comment: Demosthenes 37.52
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: epeita ḗreto tòn Kûron ho Kuaxárēs póson …
  Gloss: then ask-IND.AORISTE.3SG ART-ACC.M.SG K-ACC ART-NOM.M.SG K-NOM how.much
  Translation: ‘Cyaxares asked Cyrus how large (the army was)’
  Comment: Xenophon Cyropaedia 2.1.2. This order is far less frequent than the others.
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: taútēn tḕn táfron basileùs poieî
  Gloss: DEM-ACC.F.SG ART-ACC.F.SG trench-ACC king-NOM.SG make-IND.PRS.3SG
  Translation: the king had constructed this trench
  Comment: Historical present. Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.7.16
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 10_Object Verb Subject Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: tò mían eînai tḕn pólin epaineî málista ho Sōkrátēs
  Gloss: ART-NT one-ACC.F.SG be-INF ART-ACC.F.SG city-ACC praise-IND.PRS.3SG the.most ART-NOM Socrates-NOM
  Translation: ‘Socrates praises most highly the unity of the state’
  Comment: Aristotle, Politics, 1262b. The object is a nominalized infinitival clause lit. 'the fact that the city is one'
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: perì tôn theôn
  Gloss: about art-GEN.M.PL god-GEN.PL
  Translation: about the gods
  Comment: Plato Euthyphro, 6a
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: philosophias péri
  Gloss: philosophy-GEN.SG about
  Translation: about philosophy
  Comment: CAVEAT: in prose, peri is the only possible postposition. (example: Plato Phaedo, 66d)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ho agathòs anḕr
  Gloss: art-NOM.M.SG good-NOM.M.SG man-NOM.SG
  Translation: ‘the good man’
  Comment: Plato Protagoras, 345b. NB: definite NP
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: díkaios anḕr
  Gloss: fair-NOM.M.SG man-NOM.SG
  Translation: ‘A fair man’
  Comment: Plato Philebus, 39e. NB: indefinite NP
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: memnḗsthō anḕr agathòs eînai
  Gloss: remember-IMP.2SG man-NOM.M good-NOM.M.SG be-INF.PRS
  Translation: ‘Let him remember to show himself a brave man’
  Comment: Xenophon Anabasis, 3.2.39. NB: this is only possible with an indefinite NP or a predicative NP
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: en déka mēsìn
  Gloss: in ten month-DAT.PL
  Translation: (He captured the city after a siege of) ten months
  Comment:  Isocrates 15.111
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: en étesi déka
  Gloss: in year-DAT.PL ten
  Translation: (They captured the city after a siege of) ten years
  Comment: Isocrates 5.112
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Eric Besson Forum
  Words: kaì hoûtos ho nómos eklé:the: seisáchtheia
  Gloss: and this-NOM the-NOM law-NOM was-called shaking-off-of-burdens-NOM
  Translation: and this law was called "shaking-off burdens"
  Comment: Greek Text: καὶ οὗτος ὁ νόμος ἐκλήθη σεισάχθεια: (Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 1.45.6)
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Eric Besson Forum
  Words: Ho dè Té:re:s hoûtos ho toû Sitálkou patè:r prô:tos Odrúsais tè:n megále:n basileían epí pleon tê:s álle:s Thráike:s epoíe:sen.
  Gloss: the-NOM C Teres-NOM this-NOM the-NOM the-GEN Sitalces-GEN father-NOM first-ADV Odrysians-DAT the-ACC great-ACC kingdom-ACC upon more the-GEN other-GEN Thrace-GEN made
  Translation: This Teres, father of Sitalces, was the first to make the kingdom for the Odryssians greater than the rest of Thrace.
  Comment: Greek Text: ὁ δὲ Τήρης οὗτος ὁ τοῦ Σιτάλκου πατὴρ πρῶτος Ὀδρύσαις τὴν μεγάλην βασιλείαν ἐπὶ πλέον τῆς ἄλλης Θρᾴκης ἐποίησεν (Thucydides 2.29.2)
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Eric Besson Forum
  Words: stratópedón te kateskeuásanto en tô:i tê:s Artémidos ierô:i
  Gloss: camp.ACC and set-up.3.PL.AOR.MID in the.DAT the.GEN Artemis.GEN temple.DAT
  Translation: and they set-up camp in the temple of Artemis (Thucydides 6.44.3)
  Comment: Greek Text: στρατόπεδόν τε κατεσκευάσαντο ἐν τῷ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος ἱερῷ,
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Eric Besson Forum
  Words: [...] echré:santo pros tòn bo:mòn tê:s Ortho:síe:s Artémidos
  Gloss: [...] used.3.PL.MID.AOR.MID for the.ACC altar.ACC the.GEN Orthosia.GEN Artemis.GEN
  Translation: [...] they used (the pillars) for the altar of Orthosia Artemis (Herodotus 4.87.2)
  Comment: Greek Text: ἐχρήσαντο πρὸς τὸν βωμὸν τῆς Ὀρθωσίης Ἀρτέμιδος
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ho emòs patḗr
  Gloss: ART-NOM.SG my-NOM.SG father-NOM.SG
  Translation:  ‘My father’
  Comment: Antiphon 5.77. Note that this is only possible for the 1st and 2nd sg./pl. adjective possessors (the 3rd person does not have an adjective possessor) and the reflexive possessor pronouns of the six persons. For the non-reflexive possessor pronouns see the other example.
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: apékteinen hēmôn tòn patéra
  Gloss: kill-PRET.3SG us-GEN ART-ACC.SG father-ACC.SG
  Translation: ‘She killed our father’
  Comment: Antiphon 1.26. The non-reflexive possessor pronoun is outside the DP and must precede the definite article.
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ho patḕr ho emós
  Gloss: ART-NOM.SG father-NOM.SG ART-NOM.SG my-NOM.SG
  Translation: 'My father'
  Comment: Isaeus 5.5. Note that the repetition of the article is required for the 1st and 2nd sg./pl. adjective possessors and the reflexive possessor pronouns of the six persons. This repetition is excluded with non-reflexive possessor pronouns (see the other example and the PRONOMINAL POSSESSOR NOUN section).
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: ho patḗr mou
  Gloss: ART-NOM.SG father-NOM.SG me-GEN
  Translation: ‘My father’
  Comment: Isocrate 17.4. See the other example and the comment under the PRONOMINAL POSSESSOR NOUN section.
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Eric Besson Forum
  Words: tòn árton he:mô:n tòn epioúsion dòs he:min sé:meron
  Gloss: the.M.ACC.SG bread.M.ACC.SG us.GEN the.M.ACC.SG daily.M.ACC.SG give.2.AOR.IMP us.DAT today
  Translation: give us today our daily bread (Matthew 6:11)
  Comment: Greek Text: Τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: Hē thḗra kalḕ éstai
  Gloss: ART-NOM.F.SG hunt-NOM.SG nice-NOM.F.SG be-IND.FUT
  Translation: The hunt will be successful
  Comment: Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 2.4.20
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: anḕr dokôn eînai mála mēkanētikós
  Gloss: man-NOM.M.SG seeming-NOM.M.SG be-INF very resourceful-NOM.M.SG
  Translation: man who was reputed to be exceedingly resourceful
  Comment: Xenophon, Hellenica, 3.1.8
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Richard Faure Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Richard Faure Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ouk horôntes hóti hoútōs ékei
  Gloss: NEG see-PTCP.PRS.NOM.M.PL that thus be-IND.PRS.3SG
  Translation: ‘not seeing that this is the case.’
  Comment: Plato Theaetetus, 176e
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Richard Faure Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: epeidḕ ou xunekhṓroun, apépleusan ep’ oíkou
  Gloss: since NEG accept-IND.PRS.3PL sail.away.IND.AOR.3PL to home-GEN.SG
  Translation: ‘as (the inhabitants) would not submit, they sailed back home.’
  Comment: Thucydides, 2.66.2
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Richard Faure Forum
   Extra Examples NA Richard Faure Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: tría tálanta arguríou Euthúnō phuláttein édōken
  Gloss: 3 talent-ACC.PL money-GEN E-DAT keep-INF give-PST.3SG
  Translation: He gave in trust three talents of silver to Euthynus
  Comment: Isocrate 21.2
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: hippeîs treîs aggéllousin hóti
  Gloss: horseman-PL 3 report-PST.3PL that
  Translation: Three horsemen reported that
  Comment: Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.5.8 (this configuration is actually rare)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ékei tà tría eídē taûta
  Gloss: have-PRS.3SG ART-ACC.N.PL 3 form-ACC.PL DEM-ACC.N.PL
  Translation: The soul contains these three forms
  Comment: Plato, Respublica, 435c5
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Richard Faure Forum
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ho kíndunos hoûtos
  Gloss: ART-NOM.M.SG danger-NOM.SG DEM-NOM.M.SG
  Translation: This danger
  Comment: Lysias 34.9
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: ékei tà tría eídē taûta
  Gloss: have-PRS.3SG ART-ACC.N.PL 3 form-ACC.PL DEM-ACC.N.PL
  Translation: The soul really contains these three forms
  Comment: Plato, Respublica, 435c5
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Richard Faure Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Richard Faure Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Richard Faure Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Richard Faure Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Richard Faure Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Richard Faure Forum
  Words: emè ekeínē hē arkhḕ ouk exéplēxen
  Gloss: I-ACC DEM-NOM.M.SG ART-NOM.F.SG government-NOM.F.SG NEG frighten-PST.3SG
  Translation: That government did not frighten me
  Comment: Plato, Apologia Socratis, 32d4
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Richard Faure Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Eric Besson Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun Yes Eric Besson Forum
  Words: tís ho kainotrópos hoûtos mûthos kate’ emàn hê:ken akouán?
  Gloss: What the-NOM new-turn-NOM this-NOM story-NOM upon my-ACC comes hearing-ACC?
  Translation: What newly-turned story is this that comes upon my hearing? / What is this newly turned story that comes upon my hearing?
  Comment: Greek Text: τίς ὁ καινοτρόπος οὗτος μῦθος κατ’ ἐμὰν ἧκεν ἀκουάν; (Euripedes, Fragment 1132 line 49)
  Contributor: Eric Besson
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Richard Faure Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Richard Faure Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Richard Faure Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Richard Faure Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Richard Faure Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Richard Faure Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Richard Faure Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Richard Faure Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Richard Faure Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Richard Faure Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Richard Faure Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Richard Faure Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Richard Faure Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Richard Faure Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Richard Faure Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Richard Faure Forum
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Richard Faure Forum
  Words: hoûtoi tí poioûsin hoi nómoi ?
  Gloss: DEM-NOM.M.PL WH-ACC.N.SG do-PRS.3PL ART law-NOM.PL
  Translation: What do these laws accomplish?
  Comment: Dem. 21.30. See also Xen. Smp. 8.21
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum