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Bafut

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: bft
  latlong: 6.084528,10.13017  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá bwíì
  Gloss: Chief the sleep
  Translation: The chief is sleeping
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   02_Verb Subject No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ kó nó
  Gloss: chief the PST catch snake
  Translation: The chief caught a snake
  Comment: Change of tense/aspect or definiteness/indefiniteness does not affect case
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: kàá mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ wá’à nó kô
  Gloss: Neg chief the PST Neg snake catch
  Translation: The chief did not catch a snake
  Comment: the SOV order is used exceptionally in negative sentences.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: lə́ŋə́ wíì ká tá mbú yâ
  Gloss: Horse that FUT kick dog the
  Translation: That horse will kick the dog
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: kàá lə́ŋə́ ghû ká wá’á mbú yá tâ
  Gloss: Neg horse this FUT Neg dog the kick
  Translation: This horse will not kick the dog
  Comment: As mentioned above, this order (SOV) is only possible with negative sentences
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   07_Verb Subject Object No Pius Tamanji Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Pius Tamanji Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: Àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nɔ̀ŋsɨ́ mbà yá átú ŋgɔ̀’ɔ̀
  Gloss: Ambe PST put meat the on stone
  Translation: Ambe placed the meat on a stone
  Comment: The preposition is usually a combination of á (a particle which marks location, direction, etc.) and a body part. In this example, á + àtû head)
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mámù’ù ndâ
  Gloss: big house
  Translation: (very) big house
  Comment: There is a restriction on which adjectives can precede the noun and which cannot. See Tamanji (2009) for detailed description of adjectives.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: ndâ yìŋwì
  Gloss: Big house
  Translation: Big house
  Comment: All postnominal attributive adjectives agree with the noun in class and number. See Tamanji (2009) for detailed description of adjectives.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   15_Numeral Noun No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: ŋ̀kàà jíbáà
  Gloss: monkeys two
  Translation: Two monkeys
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: níì nɨ̀ŋgɔ̀ɔ̀
  Gloss: that plantain
  Translation: That particular plantain
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: nɨ̀ŋgɔ̀ɔ̀ níì
  Gloss: plantain that
  Translation: That plantain
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   19_Possessor Noun No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mɨ̀lùù mɨ́ m̀fɔ̀ myâ
  Gloss: wine of chief the
  Translation: The wine of the chief / The chief's wine
  Comment: Associative marher (of) agrees in number and class with possessed noun. Some associative morphemes are tonal. No distinction in alienable and inalienable possession.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mbû yà
  Gloss: dog 1SG
  Translation: My dog
  Comment: This order is used in the neutral context. Pronominal possessor must agree with noun in class and number
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: ndâ yìnsɨ́gɨ́nɨ̀
  Gloss: house nice
  Translation: A nice house
  Comment: Attributive adjectives follow and agree with the noun. A small subset can precede the noun but they do not agree.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Pius Tamanji Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective NA Pius Tamanji Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree NA Pius Tamanji Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Pius Tamanji Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ wà’àtɨ́ [mə́ tàá ká kwô]
  Gloss: chief the PST think [that father FUT die]
  Translation: The chief thought that my father will die
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mə̀ kɨ̀ wô kwà’ànɨ̀ [nlóŋmə́ ŋgwɛ́ ghà kɨ̀ kxə̌]
  Gloss: I PST fail exam [because wife my PST run]
  Translation: I failed the examination because my wife ran away
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Extra Examples NA Pius Tamanji Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: bàntɔ̀ɔ̀ bíbáà
  Gloss: pots two
  Translation: Two pots
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
  Words: bɔ́ɔ́ bíbáá tsí mánjì
  Gloss: children two sit road
  Translation: There are two children on the road
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Pius Tamanji Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mbú yìmfùùrɨ̀ yâ
  Gloss: dog one the
  Translation: The (lone) dog that we have talked about
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mbú yìmfùrɨ̀ yíì
  Gloss: dog one that
  Translation: That one/lone dog
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Pius Tamanji Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Pius Tamanji Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Pius Tamanji Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Pius Tamanji Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: Kàá màŋgyè wá kɨ̀ wá’á mɨ́kúú lɨ́gə̂
  Gloss: Neg woman the PST Neg beans cultivate
  Translation: The woman did not cultivate beans
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: wíì mámù’ù ndâ
  Gloss: that big house
  Translation: That big house
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: yíì ndá yímfù’ù
  Gloss: that house white
  Translation: That white house
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: ntɔ́lɔ́ŋ yímfù’ù wíì
  Gloss: flower white that
  Translation: That white flower
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: ntɔ́lɔ́ŋ wíì yímfù’ù
  Gloss: flower that white
  Translation: That white flower
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mámù’ù ndâ wíì
  Gloss: big house that
  Translation: That big house
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: yíì ndâ yìmfùrɨ̀
  Gloss: that house one
  Translation: That one/single/lone house
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: ndá yìmfùrɨ̀ yíì
  Gloss: house one that
  Translation: That one/single/lone house
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: ndâ yíì yímfùrɨ̀
  Gloss: house that one
  Translation: That one / lone / single house
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ nó mɨ̀lù’ù?
  Gloss: chief the PST drink wine
  Translation: Did the chief drink wine?
  Comment: The speaker has to raise intonation for the utterance to be interpreted as a polar question. See Tamanji (2009) for other characteristics of polar questions in Bafut
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ nó mɨ̀lù’ù? Answer: ɨ̀ɨ̀ŋə́
  Gloss: chief the PST drink wine yes
  Translation: Did the chief drink wine? Yes
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: m̀fɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ nó mɨ̀lù’ù? Answer: ŋgáŋ
  Gloss: chief the PST drink wine No
  Translation: Did the chief drink wine? No
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Pius Tamanji Forum
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Pius Tamanji Forum
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ nó mɨ̀lù’ù? Answer: ɨ̀ɨ̀ŋə́
  Gloss: chief the PST drink wine
  Translation: Did the chief drink wine ? Yes
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
  Words: kaa mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ wa'a mɨ̀lù’ù no? Answer: ɨ̀ɨ̀ŋə́, (kaa mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ wa'a mɨ̀lù’ù no)
  Gloss: Neg chief the PST Neg wine drink Q Answer: Yes Neg chief the PST Neg wine drink
  Translation: Did the chief not drink wine? Yes (he dd not)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Pius Tamanji Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Pius Tamanji Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Pius Tamanji Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Pius Tamanji Forum