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Basaa

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: bas
  latlong: 4.05,9.71  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: maŋgɛ́ a- bí- pↄ́t
  Gloss: 1child 1SM- PST2- talk
  Translation: The child talked
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 02_Verb Subject No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: ḿ- pↄ́d- ↄ́k wↄ́ -n maŋgɛ́ a- bí- *(pↄ́d)
  Gloss:  NMLZ- buy-NMLZ AGR-FOC 1child 1SM-PST2-talk
  Translation:  ‘The child TALKED (he did nothing else)
  Comment: The subject can be sandwiched between two verbs, with focus on the verb, still S precede tensed verb
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: maŋgɛ́ *(a)- bí- sↄ́mb káàt
  Gloss: 1child 1SM- PST2- buy 7book
  Translation: The/a child bought a book
  Comment: SM is obligatory in tensed clauses. The high tone on the object seems to be a property of tensed clauses. In imepratives book will be low toned and only lexically specified high tone can surface.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   04_Object Verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: ɓàúdú ɓá- ń- tilá ni bisáó
  Gloss: 2students 2SM-PRES-write with 8pens
  Translation: The students write with pens
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Ewas a- ǹ- núŋúl bíkoyóp bí mátówa
  Gloss: 1Ewas 1SM- PST1- sell 5red GEN 6car
  Translation:  ‘Ewas has sold red cars’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Ewas a- ǹ- núŋúl lítówa lilâm
  Gloss: 1Ewas 1SM- PST1- sell 5car 5nice
  Translation:  Ewas has sold a/the new car
  Comment: depends on the adjective
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: jò́m *(lí) bíkààt
  Gloss: ten GEN 8books
  Translation: ten books
  Comment: Note that the tens (10, 20, 30, 40…90) require an obligatory GEN/associative marker between the numeral and the noun. With the hundreds this is optional
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: mbógôl (i) bikààt
  Gloss: a hundred (GEN) 8books
  Translation: A hundred books
  Comment: With a hundred or a thousand the Gen/Linker is optional. This contrasts with tens (10.20/30...90) where the gen/linker is obligatory.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: jò́m lí bíkààt ni yadá
  Gloss: ten GEN 8books and/with AGR-one
  Translation: eleven books
  Comment: split numbers with 10 +x.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: momáà má- bíkaat ni bítân
  Gloss: PL.ten.three GEN 8books with/and AGR.five
  Translation: ‘Thirty five books’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: mùt w-adá
  Gloss: 1man AGR-one
  Translation: one person
  Comment: Possible with numbers below ten
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: ɓôt ɓá-sámal
  Gloss: 2person AGR-six
  Translation: 6 people
  Comment: order possble with numbers below ten
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: bíní bikaat
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX 8books
  Translation: These books (here)
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: í malaŋ máná // málaŋ máná
  Gloss:  DEF 6onions AGR.DEM.PROX //H(tone).6onions AGR.DEM.PROX
  Translation:  ‘These onions (here)’
  Comment: Note that in the absence of DEF there is high tone spreading of (DEF) to the first syllable of the noun:
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: í wɛm mân
  Gloss: DEF 1SG.POSS 1child
  Translation: MY child (not yours)
  Comment: only possible with focus on possessor
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: ɓàlêt ɓês
  Gloss: 2teachers 2.our
  Translation: our teachers
  Comment: Note that here the tone on the possessive becomes LH or HL. whereas the noun starts with a low tone.(still need to add an example without a relational noun)
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: màn wɛ̀́m
  Gloss: 1child 1SG.POSS
  Translation: my child
  Comment: (still need to add an example with alienable noun). The order POSS N is only possible with focus on the possessor
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: ɓaken ɓa-lâm
  Gloss: 2guests AGR-nice
  Translation: nice guests
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: bijɛ́k ɓi- lâm
  Gloss: 8food 8.AGR-nice
  Translation: nice food
  Comment: agreement in class and number
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: malêt a ye ndèk n-lâm
  Gloss: 1teacher 1SM be a little AGR-nice
  Translation: the teacher is a little bit nice
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: malaŋ má yé ma-kɛ́ŋí
  Gloss:  6 onoins 6SM be.PRES AGR-big
  Translation: ‘The onions are bigs’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: malaŋ má ye ndek ma-kɛ́ŋí
  Gloss:  6 onions 6SM be a little 6-big
  Translation: ‘The onions are a little bit big’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: malêt a ye n-lâm ndèk
  Gloss: 1teacher 1SM be AGR-nice a little
  Translation: the teacher is a bit nice
  Comment: This is marginally acceptable. (Perhaps a question mark?)
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: malet a- bí- kal lɛ́ ɓaúdú ɓá- sↄ́mb pɛ́m
  Gloss: 1teacher 1SM-PST2-say that 2students 2SM-buy.SBJV chalk
  Translation: ‘The teacher said that the students should buy chalk’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: mɛ ń- yí ɓéé tↄ̀ↄ́ malêt a- ń- lↄ̀
  Gloss: I PRES-know NEG if 1teacher 1SM-FUT1-come
  Translation: ‘I don’t know if the teacher will come’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: mɛ ń-jɛ́ ɓéé ínyuúlɛ́ mɛ ŋ́- kↄ̀n
  Gloss: I PRES-eat NEG because I PRES-be sick
  Translation:  ‘I don’t eat because I am sick’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Extra Examples No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Paul Roger Bassong for numbers >9. Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: mɛ ń- jɛ́ ɓéé ínyuúlɛ́ mɛ ŋ́- kↄ̀n
  Gloss: I PRES-eat NEG because I PRES-be sick
  Translation: ‘I don’t eat because I am sick’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: maŋgɛ́ a- gá- nɛd ɓéé mákeksɛ
  Gloss: 1child 1SM-FUT2-pass NEG 6 exams
  Translation: ‘The child will not pass the exams’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: maŋgɛ́ a- ta- ɓéé (í)- jowa biséyá
  Gloss: 1child 1SM-be NEG (INF)- wash 8plates
  Translation: ‘The child is not washing the plates’
  Comment: When one of the arguments of the verb or the adjunct is negated negation can be higher than the verb. However movement takes place in the left periphery of the clause with obligatory focus marking. Note also that in the simple present tense the auxiliary ɓá ‘be’ is ‘ye’ in the affirmative form whereas it is realized as ta in the negative form. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: biséyá ɓéé *(gwↄ́-n) maŋgɛ́ a- ye- (í)- jowa
  Gloss: 8plates NEG AGR-FOC 1child 1SM-be (INF)-wash
  Translation: ‘It is not the plates that the child is washing’
  Comment: When one of the arguments of the verb or the adjunct is negated negation can be higher than the verb. However movement takes place in the left periphery of the clause with obligatory focus marking. Note also that in the simple present tense the auxiliary ɓá ‘be’ is ‘ye’ in the affirmative form whereas it is realized as ta in the negative form. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: maŋgɛ́ ɓéé *(nyɛ́- n) a- ye (í)- jowa biséyá
  Gloss: 1child NEG AGR-FOC 1SM-be (INF-)wash plates
  Translation: ‘It is not the child who is washing the plates’
  Comment: When one of the arguments of the verb or the adjunct is negated negation can be higher than the verb. However movement takes place in the left periphery of the clause with obligatory focus marking. Note also that in the simple present tense the auxiliary ɓá ‘be’ is ‘ye’ in the affirmative form whereas it is realized as ta in the negative form. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: ɓáná ɓa-lâm ɓá ɓↄŋgɛ́
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. AGR-nice GEN 2children
  Translation: ‘These nice children (here)
  Comment: In the above example the adjective is given more prominence than the head noun. The adjective fulfils a subjective function in this case. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: bíní bi-koyóp bí mámbↄ́t
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. AGR-red GEN 6garments
  Translation: ‘These red garments (here)
  Comment: In the above example the adjective is given more prominence than the head noun. The adjective fulfils a subjective function in this case. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: máná mambↄ́t ma-lâm
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. 6garments AGR-nice
  Translation: ‘These nice garments (here)’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: bíí biséyá bi-kɛ́ŋí
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.DIST 8plates AGR-big
  Translation: ‘These big plates (over there)’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: í mambↄ́t ma-lâm máná
  Gloss: DEF 8garments AGR-nice AGR.DEM.PROX.
  Translation:  ‘These nice garments (here)’
  Comment: DEF-N-ADJ-DEM is the normal noun phrase. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: mi- nù́ŋl-ak mí mámbↄ́t míní
  Gloss: NMLZ-sell-NMLZ GEN 6garments AGR.DEM.PROX.
  Translation: ‘These here are the sold garments (the garments that are sold).
  Comment: In this order we obtain a clause. The nominalized verb is in fact like a participle (for instance ‘the one that is sold’). (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: máná momáâ má ɓôt
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. PL.ten.two GEN 2persons
  Translation: 'These twenty persons (here)'
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: líní jôm lí ɓôt
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. ten GEN 2persons
  Translation: ‘This ten of persons (here)’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: núnú mùt w-adá
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. 1person AGR-one
  Translation:  ‘This one man (here)’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: míní mintómbá mín-sám̀bↄ́k
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. 4sheep AGR-seven
  Translation:  ‘These seven sheep (here)’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: mùt w-adá núnú
  Gloss: 1person AGR-one AGR.DEM.PROX.
  Translation:  This/here is one person’
  Comment: This leads to a small clause. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: mintómbá mín-sám̀bↄ́k míní
  Gloss: 4sheep AGR-seven AGR.DEM.PROX.
  Translation:  ‘Here/these are seven sheep’
  Comment: This leads to a small clause. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: momáâ má ɓôt máná
  Gloss: PL.ten.two GEN 2persons AGR.DEM.PROX.
  Translation:  ‘These/ Here are twenty persons’
  Comment: We end up with a clause. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: jôm lí ɓôt líní
  Gloss: ten GEN 2persons AGR.DEM.PROX.
  Translation:  ‘These/here are ten persons’
  Comment: We end up with a clause. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: (ɓàá) mudaá a-n-lɑ́mb kón *(ɛ́)
  Gloss: Q woman SM-PST1-cook rice Q
  Translation: ‘Has the woman cook rice?’
  Comment: The following sentence shows that the initial question particle is optional while the final one is mandatory. Note that the initial particle cannot stand alone; it requires its final counterpart.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: mudaá a-n-lɑ́mb kón *(ɛ́)
  Gloss: woman SM-PST1-cook rice Q
  Translation: ‘Has the woman cook rice?’
  Comment: The following sentence shows that the final particle must appear in yes/no even in the absence of an initial marker
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: n-lɑ́mb-ɑ́ɣ w-ɔ́n mudɑ̀ɑ́ ɑ-n-lɑmb kón *(ɛ́)
  Gloss: NMLZ-cook-NMLZ 3-FOC woman SM-PST1-cook rice Q
  Translation: ‘Has the woman COOKED rice?’
  Comment: This property is yes in focus-verb constructions. But here again, a final question marker must appear.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: (ɓáà) mudaá a-n-lɑ́mb kón *(ɛ́) A: ŋ̀ŋ́ (proᵢ aᵢ-n-lɑ́mb kón/jɔ́)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-cook rice Q A: pro SM- PST1-cook rice/ it
  Translation: Q: 'Has the woman cooked rice?' A: 'Yes (lit. Yes she cooked rice/it?)'
  Comment: As can be seen, the parenthetical sentence is optional. In fact, the natural answer consists in using the affirmative particle ŋ̀ŋ́ ‘yes’ for economy purposes. Also, if the speaker wants to repeat the entire sentence s/he can use either the object NP or a resumptive.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q: (ɓàá) mudaá a- n- lɑ́mb kón *(ɛ́) A: ntǐɣ (proᵢ aᵢ-n-lɑ́mb kón/jɔ́)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-cook rice Q A: Yes (pro SM- PST1-cook rice/ it)
  Translation: Q: ‘Has the woman cooked rice?’ A: ‘Yes (lit. Yes she cooked rice/ it?)’
  Comment: Another strategy consists in using the particle ntǐɣ ‘yes/exactly/of course/undoubtedly’ as in the following example. The comment is the same as the one used for the particle particle ŋ̀ŋ́ ‘yes’ above.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q:(ɓàá) mudaá *(a)-n- lɑ́mb *(ɛ́) A: proᵢ *(aᵢ)-n- lɑ́mb
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-cook Q A: pro SM-PST1-cook
  Translation: Q: ‘Has the woman cooked ?’ A: (Lit. She cooked)
  Comment: This seems to be possible in pro-drop contexts and if we assume that the subject marker is part of the verbal morphology as can be seen here.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: (ɓàá) mudaá a-n-lɑ́mb *(ɛ́) A: ntǐɣ proᵢ aᵢ-n-lɑ́mb A: ŋ̀ŋ́ proᵢ aᵢ-n-lɑ́mb
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-cook Q A: yes pro SM- PST1-cook A: yes pro SM- PST1-cook
  Translation: Q: ‘Has the woman cooked rice?’ A: ‘Lit. Yes she has cooked’ A: ‘Lit. Yes she has cooked’
  Comment: This property seems to be ‘yes’ if we consider the subject marker as part of the verb. In other words, since the Basa’a verbal morphology is complex due to the morphological richness it exhibits, it is possible to say that property Q12 is applicable. In this case we obtain a pro-drop construction as can be seen here.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: (ɓàá) ŋgim mut i-n-tɑ́ɣɓɛ́ hɑ́nɑ́ *(ɑ̀) A: ?? proᵢ iᵢ -n-tàɣɓɛ̀
  Gloss: Q: Q some people SM-PST1-pass here Q A: pro SM-PST1-pass
  Translation: A: ‘Lit. s/she (somebody) passed’
  Comment: This property is marginally acceptable in Basa’a’ as can be seen by the question marks at the beginning of the answer here.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: (ɓàá) ŋgim mut i-n-tɑ́ɣɓɛ́ hɑ́nɑ́ *(ɑ̀) A:?? ŋ̀ŋ́ proᵢ iᵢ-n-táɣɓɛ̀
  Gloss: Q: Q some people SM-PST1-pass here Q A: yes pro SM-PST1-pass
  Translation: A: ‘Lit. Yes, s/she (somebody) passed’
  Comment: The property is marginally acceptable as can be seen here.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: ɓɔɔŋgɛ́ ɓá-ń-sɔ́mb mátówa a A: tɔ́/hɛ́ɛ́ní
  Gloss: Q: Q children SM-PRS-buy cars Q A: no/never
  Translation: Q: ‘Do children buy cars?’ A: 'No'
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: Mudàá a-n-lámb ɛ́ A: tɔ́/hɛ́ɛ́ní *béé
  Gloss: Q: woman SM-PST-cook Q A: no/no/never *NEG
  Translation: Q: 'Has the woman cooked?' A: 'no' *not
  Comment: No, since the sentential negation cannot stand alone as a negative answer.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Mudáà a-n-làmb ɓéé kón
  Gloss: woman SM-PST-cook NEG rice
  Translation: 'The woman has not cooked rice.'
  Comment: This is an instance of sentential negation.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: ɓàá mudaá a-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé í ɓom ɛ A: tɔ̀ (proᵢ aᵢ- ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-go há NEG LOC market Q A: no pro SM-PST1-go ha NEG
  Translation: Q: ‘Did the woman not go to the market?’ A: ‘No’ lit. No she didn’t go to the market’
  Comment: Note that the parenthetical sentence is optional. Also, as can be seen, the particle há occurring in-between the intransitive kɛ́ ‘go’ and sentential negation ɓéé has no English equivalent. But note that this particle is always used alongside the sentential negation marker when an action was expected to have been accomplished, but did not. The direct equivalent of hɑ́ ɓéé in French is ‘ne plus’.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Maaŋgɛ́ a-ḿ-pɔ́t há ɓéé púlɑsí
  Gloss: child SM-PRS-speak ha NEG F.
  Translation: ‘The child does not speak French any more (before he used to speak French, but now, he does not speak it again’
  Comment: One can speculate that the particle ha is an anti-perfective or anti-continuative marker.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q: ɓàá mudaá a-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé í ɓom ɛ A: ŋŋ́ (proᵢ aᵢ- ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-go há NEG LOC market Q A: yes pro SM-PST1-go há NEG
  Translation: Q: ‘Did the woman not go to the market?’ A: ‘Yes’ lit. Yes, she didn’t go to the market’
  Comment: Again, note that property Q19 can also applies in an alternative fashion, even though the most natural answer to a negative polar question is negative. In the following example, a negative polar question can be answered positively. Note that the parenthetical sentence is optional.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Comment: See property Q19 above.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: ɓàá mudaá a-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé í ɓom ɛ A: tɔ̀ *(proᵢ aᵢ- ŋ-kɛ̀)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-go há NEG LOC market Q A: no pro SM-PST1-go
  Translation: Q: ‘Did the woman not go to the market?’ A: ‘No’ lit. No he DID go’
  Comment: In this context only a ‘NO’ answer is felicitous. However, the negative particle alone is ruled out. In other words, the negative particle must be followed by the whole sentence for confirmation purposes if not the answer will be tricky (embarrassing/ambiguous) A positive answer is completely ruled out as can be seen here.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q: ɓàá mudaá a-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé í ɓom ɛ A: *ŋ̀ŋ́ (proᵢ aᵢ- ŋ-kɛ̀)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-go há NEG LOC market Q A: yes pro SM-PST1-go
  Translation: Q: 'Did the woman not go to the market?' A: *'Yes lit. No he DID go'
  Comment: This example shows that a positive answer is ruled out in the same context.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Q: Q: ɓàá mudaá a-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé í ɓom ɛ A: ŋ̀ŋ́ (proᵢ aᵢ-ŋ-kɛ̀ há ɓéé)
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-go ha NEG LOC market Q A: yes (pro SM-PST1-go ha NEG)
  Translation: Q: 'Did the woman not go to the market?' A: 'Yes he did not go.'
  Comment: Note that the parenthetical sentence is optional.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second NA Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second NA Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Mɛ ń- njɔ́ málêp híkií kɛ̂l
  Gloss: I PRES-drink 6.water every 9.day
  Translation: I drink water everyday
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Mɛ bí- sɔ̂mb máɔk yaaní
  Gloss: I PST2-buy 6.wine 1.yesterday
  Translation: 'I bought wine yesterday'
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Johánɛs a- bí- nyɔ́ mílîk bikɛkɛla
  Gloss: 1.John 1.SM-PST2-drink 4.milk 8.morning
  Translation: 'John drank milk for breakfast'
  Comment: NB: In this context, there is no exact translation for the source text
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Mɛ ń- dʒɛ́ ndék nlámb
  Gloss: I PRS-eat some 3.meat
  Translation: I eat some/a little meat’
  Comment: In most cases in Basa’a, any item in the so-called Immediately After Verb (IAV) position is assigned a high tone on the first syllable.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Johánɛs a- ń- sál móó í wɔm wéé
  Gloss: 1. John1. 1.SM-PRS-work/produce 6.oil LOC 3.farm 3.his
  Translation: ‘The wind spread sand on my veranda’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words:  Maríya a- ń- dʒɛ́ máhɔ́ŋ
  Gloss:  1.Mary 1.SM-PRS-eat 6.fat
  Translation: ‘Mary is eating/eats fat’
  Comment: The word cheese has no exact equivalent in the language. However, terms like ‘cheese’ and ‘butter for instance are considered as being made up of fat, hence the term máhɔ́ŋ ‘fat’ to refer to oily/fatty substances.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: tí mɛ í malêp mâ, mɛ ń- tí wɛ́ mahɔ́ŋ
  Gloss: give.IMP.2pl me AUG 6.water 6.DEM I FUT1-give you 6.cheese
  Translation: Speaker A and speaker B are having dinner. There is water and cheese on the table.Give me the water, I will pass you the cheese’ Contect: Speaker A says: Pass me _____ water! I will pass you the cheese.
  Comment: In this context, water can be bare, or have an augment (the segmental part can be absent, but the tone must remain) and a demonstrative. It is puzzling that this is only possible for the leftmost object: i.e. cheese cannot be augmented and carry a demonstrative. What factors play a role remains to be explored.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: yaaní, mɛ bí- ɓɔmá ŋ́údú
  Gloss: 1.yesterday I PST2-meet 1.student
  Translation:  ‘Yesterday I met a student’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: yaaní mɛ bí- tɛ́hɛ́ ŋgwɔ́ í wɔ́m wɛ̂m
  Gloss: 1.yesterday I PST2-see 9.dog LOC 3.garden 3.my
  Translation: Yesterday I saw a dog in my garden’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Mɛ gwě ŋgǒŋ ni matila, ndí tɔwadá mɛ yé ŋgi leba
  Gloss: I have need of secretary but not one I be not yet find
  Translation: I need a secretary, but haven’t found one yet
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: í mboŋ i i- ń- la nɔ́l ndʒɔ́k í ndék ŋgeda
  Gloss: AUG 9.poison 9.DEM 9.SM-PRS-can kill 9.elephant LOC some 9.time
  Translation: That poison can kill an elephant in a short period of time
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Johánɛs a- ń- la núŋûl básko ínyuú manût mátán
  Gloss: 1.John 1.SM-PRS-can sell 9.bike for 6.minutes 6.five
  Translation: Johannes can sell a bike in 5 minutes
  Comment: (interesting use of for).
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: David a- ń- nuŋûl káat/bíkaat ínyuú li-niŋ
  Gloss: 1.David 1.SM-PRS-sell 7.book/8.books for INF-live
  Translation: David sells a book/books for a living’.
  Comment: The singular is unambigously interpreted as singular.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: í wɔ̌m (í) binugá, ɓɔɔŋgɛ́ ɓá- bí- ɓeŋgɛ́ ńdʒɔk ndʒǎmhwá jɔsô
  Gloss: LOC 3.farm PREP 8.animals 2.children 2.SM-PST2-watch 9/10.elephant(s) 7.afternoon 7.all
  Translation: At the zoo, the children watched an elephant (indefinite)/elephants (indefinite) all afternoon long.
  Comment: In Basa’a, like in many noun class languages of the Bantu family, names that designate animals belong to class 9. These nouns are bacically invariable morphologically (although there can be some tone alternation for some cases). the noun ńdʒɔk ‘elephant(s)’ is morphologically ambiguous between indefinite singular and plural. (To further test: a case where singular and plural are distinct tonally.) All points to a no setting so far.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Mɛ bí- ɓɔmá dílɔ́gá díɓáa ni hiŋgɔnda (hjádá), mɛ bí-seɓél hiŋgɔnda (*hjádá)
  Gloss: I PST2-meet 12.boys 2.two and 19.girl (19.one) I PST2-call 19.girl 19.one
  Translation: I met two boys and a girl. I called the girl.
  Comment: Note that although the cardinal hjádá ‘one’ is OK in the first NP, it cannot be present in the definite one.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Kaat (jadá) ni tilná (jádá) bí- ɓé í ŋgií téble. Mɛ bí- jɔŋ kaat (*jada), mɛ wâs tílnâ (*jáda )
  Gloss: 7.book 7.one and 7.pen/pencil 7.one 8.SM-be.PST LOC up 7.table. I PST2-take 7.book 7.one I leave.PST 7.pen/pencil 7.one
  Translation:  A book and a pen were on the table. ‘I took the book, I left the pen.’
  Comment: Note that in Basàá, when a coordinate structure is made up of two names (-human) of the same noun class or two names of two different noun classes, the subject marker must bear morphological agreement of class 8 as shown above. Although the nouns kaat ‘book’ and tilná ‘pen/pencil’ belong each to the same class (i.e. class 7), the subject marker bears class 8 agreement (bi-).
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Mɛ ń- lamá kébél ŋgwɔ́ OR: Mɛ ń- lamá kébél í ŋgwɔ́ i
  Gloss: I PRS-must feed 9.dog OR: I PRS-must feed AUG 9.dog 9.DEM
  Translation: I must feed the/that dog
  Comment: Speaker A and Speaker B have a dog. The dog is outside, in the garden, and it is barking. Speaker A says: I must feed the dog. In some (?limited) context the augment and demonstrative can be used felicitously)
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: yaaní mɛ bí- sɔ́mb bíkaat
  Gloss: 1.yesterday I PST2-buy 8.books
  Translation: Yesterday I bought books
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Tɔŋɛ́ a- ḿ-ɓeŋgɛ́ sóŋ
  Gloss: 1.Tɔŋɛ́ 1.SM-PRS-look 9.moon
  Translation: 'Tɔŋɛ́ is looking/looks at the moon'
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: *Tɔŋɛ́ a- ḿ- ɓeŋgɛ́ í sóŋ
  Gloss: 1.Tɔŋɛ́ 1.SM-PRS-look DEF 9.moon
  Translation: intended: 'Tɔŋɛ́ is looking/looks at the moon'
  Comment: The presence of the augment (glossed here as DEF) makes the sentence illicit
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Mɛ bí-náŋá Ntɔ́ɔgɛ
  Gloss: I PST2-invite 1.PN
  Translation: 'I invited Ntɔɔgɛ'
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: *Mɛ bí-náŋá í Ntɔɔgɛ
  Gloss: I PST2-invite DEF 1.PN
  Comment: The presence of the definite marker makes the sentence illicit
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article NA Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article NA Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: *Mɛ bí-náŋá í Bíkûn
  Gloss:  I PST2-invite DEF PN
  Comment: Proper names cannot combine with the definite article
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: *Mɛ bí-náŋá Bíkûn í
  Gloss:  I PST2-invite 1.PN DEF
  Comment: Proper nouns cannot combine with the augment/definite article. Augments precede nouns, and never follow.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: Mɛ bí- náŋá Bíkûn ŋ-kɛ́ŋí
  Gloss: I PST2-invite 1.PN 1-big/old
  Translation: 'I invited the old Bíkûn'
  Comment: The adjective ŋkɛ́ŋí means 'big', but in this context it can also convey the meaning of 'old', i.e. lit. 'I invited the big (in age) Bíkûn'
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
+ w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
  Words: *Mɛ bí-náŋá í Bíkûn ŋ-kɛ́ŋi
  Gloss: I PST2-invite 1.PN 1-big/old
  Translation: I invited old Bikun
  Comment: The proper name cannot be preceded by the definite article in this context either.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Paul Roger Bassong Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Paul Roger Bassong Forum