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Bulgarian

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: bul
  latlong: 42.694549,23.337708  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Nikola pristig-na
  Gloss: Nikola arrive-3.SG.AOR
  Translation: Nikola arrived
  Comment: AOR=aorist, not in the Leipzig glossing rules
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   02_Verb Subject No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: S-vərsh-i proekt-a
  Gloss: PFV-do-3.SG.AOR project-DEF.SG.M
  Translation: Finished the project
  Comment: The sentence is much more colloquial if a reflexive-possessive particle 'si' is added 'Svərsh-i si proekt-a' added
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   04_Object Verb No Ljuba Veselinova Again, this is a possible but very marked order. The object cannot appear as a bare noun, it must have an object clitic Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Nikola do-vərsh-i proekt-a
  Gloss: Nikola PFV-do-3.SG:AOR projekt-3.SG.DEF.M
  Translation: Nikola finished the project
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Todor ja vid-ja
  Gloss: Todor 3.SG.ACC.F see-3.SG.AOR
  Translation: Todor saw her
  Comment: This order is possible only with pronominal subjects but other than that it is fully normal. AOR stands for aorist. It is not in the Leipzig glossing rules
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   07_Verb Subject Object No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Ljuba Veselinova This is a pragmattically marked order; it's possble but the object has to be marked by an object clitic, that is it cannot be a bare noun or simple NP Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: Plamen otid-e do Varna s kola-ta
  Gloss: Plamen go.PFV-AOR.3.SG to Varna with car-DEF.SG.F
  Translation: Plamen drove to Varna
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Iliana Krapova Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: novata kola
  Gloss: new-ART car
  Translation: the new car
  Contributor: Iliana Krapova
  Words: xubav-o dete
  Gloss: pretty-3.N.sg child
  Translation: pretty child
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   14_Noun Adjective No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: dve kol-i
  Gloss: two car-PL
  Translation: two cars
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   16_Noun Numeral No Iliana Krapova Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: tova dete
  Gloss: DEM.N.SG child.N
  Translation: this child
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Plamen-ova-ta kola ne vərv-i dobre
  Gloss: Plamen-POSS.F.SG-DEF.F.SG car NEG walk-3.SG.PRS well
  Translation: Plamen's car does not run well
  Comment: this order is more marked than Noun Possessor order; this is, however, the normal order if the possessor is pronominal. Although pronominal possessors are excluded from the current definition, it's still important to keep this in mind
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Kola-ta na Plamen ne vərv-i dobre
  Gloss: car-DEF.F.SG of Plamen NEG walk-3.SG.PRS well
  Translation: Plamen's car does not run well; lit. 'The car of Plamen does not run well')
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: moja-ta kəshta
  Gloss: 1.SG.POSS.F-DEF.F house.F
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: kəshta moja
  Gloss: house.F 1.SG.POSS
  Translation: house my
  Comment: this is possible only in very marked styles such as poetry
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: goljam-a kəshta
  Gloss: big-SG.F house.F.SG
  Translation: a big house
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: golem-i kəsht-i
  Gloss: big-PL house-PL
  Translation: big houses
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: goljam-o dete
  Gloss: big-SG.N child.N
  Translation: big child
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Dəshterja-ta na Irina e xubav-a
  Gloss: daughter-DEF.F.SG of Irina be.3.SG.PRS pretty-F.SG
  Translation: Irina's daughter is pretty
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Deca-ta na Irina sa xubav-i
  Gloss: children-DEF.PL of Irina be.3.PL.PRS pretty-PL
  Translation: Irina's children are pretty
  Comment: Note that only gender and number are copied on to the predicate adjective from the subject; definiteness is not.
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: mnogo visok-a sgrada
  Gloss: very tall-SG.F building.F
  Translation: a very tall building
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Mike Taylor Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Iliana Krapova Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: Kaza-x na Plamen da pochn-e rabota
  Gloss: say-1.SG.AOR to Plamen that start-3.SG.PRS work
  Translation: I told Plamen that he should start working
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Iliana Krapova Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Dnes si stoj-ax v kəshti zashtoto navən beshe studen-o
  Gloss: Today REFL stay-IMPCT in home because outside be.IMPCT.3.SG cold-N.SG
  Translation: Today I stayed at home because it was cold outside
  Comment: IMFCT = imperfect, not in the Leipzig glossing rules; please note that this is the imperfect tense, not to be confused with the imperfective aspect
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Iliana Krapova Forum
   Extra Examples Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Roumyana Pancheva Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Roumyana Pancheva Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Roumyana Pancheva Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Roumyana Pancheva Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Todor ne praznuv-a Nov-a Godina
  Gloss: Todor NEG party.IPFV-3.SG.PRS New-F.SG Year.F.SG
  Translation: Todor does not party at/for New Year's
  Comment: used in sentences with non-future time reference
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
+ Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb Yes Ljuba Veselinova has to be used in sentences with future time reference Forum
  Words: Todor i Dana njama da xod-jat na kino
  Gloss: Todor and Dana not.have.3.SG.PRS SUBORD go.3.PL:PRS to cinema
  Translation: Todor and Dana won't go to the movies
  Comment: SUBORD = subordinator
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Navən njama nikakv-i katerichk-i
  Gloss: outsite not.have.3.SG.PRS none-PL.INDF squirrel-PL:INDF
  Translation: There are no squirrels outside
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Prizrats-i njama
  Gloss: Ghost-PL.INDF not.have.3.SG.PRS
  Translation: There are no ghosts
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Todor i Dana gi njama
  Gloss: Todor and Dana 3.PL.ACC not.have.3.SG.PRS
  Translation: Todor and Dana are not here
  Comment: may also mean Todor and Dana are dead. The special negator njama and the whole construction above cannot be used in constructions of contrastive negation such as Todor and Dana are not here but at work.
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Iliana Krapova Forum
  Words: tova xubav-o dete
  Gloss: DEM.N pretty-N.SG child.N
  Translation: this pretty child
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Iliana Krapova Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Iliana Krapova Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Ljuba Veselinova Forum
  Words: Zashto xvarli Vera jabalka-ta na zemja-ta?
  Gloss: why threw Vera apple-DEF.F on ground-DEF.F
  Translation: Why did Vera throw the apple on the floor?
  Comment: A more colloquial variant of the sentence of would be with a clitic: Zashto _ja_ xvarli Vera jabalkata na zemjata. The clitic precedes the verb
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova