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Cantonese (Guangzhou)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: yue
  latlong: 23.16667,113.23333  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: houdo jan zau-zo
  Gloss: many people leave-PFV
  Translation: Many people left.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: zao-zo houdo jan
  Gloss: leave-PFV many people
  Translation: Many people left.
  Comment: Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 4.1.2
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo zongji ni bun syu
  Gloss: I like this CLF book
  Translation: I like this book.
  Comment: The demonstrative ni ‘this’ can also be pronounced as li, lei, nei.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: zokjip se-zo
  Gloss: homework write-PFV
  Translation: (someone) have/has done the homework.
  Comment: In object topicalization (object-(subject)-verb, where subject may or may not be present), sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the zoeng-construction (S zoeng O V). Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 4.1.1 & 4.2.3
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo zongji ni bun syu
  Gloss: I like this CLF book
  Translation:  I like this book.
  Comment: The demonstrative ni ‘this’ can also be pronounced as li, lei, nei.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: keoi nidou sik ngo
  Gloss: (s)he here know me
  Translation: (S)He knows me here.
  Comment: In sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the zoeng-construction (S zoeng O V). Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 4.1.1 & 4.2.3
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   07_Verb Subject Object No Zixian Qiu Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Zixian Qiu Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Zixian Qiu Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: keoi tung ngo heoi-zo gung jyun
  Gloss: (s)he with I go-PFV park
  Translation: (S)He went to the park with me.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo hai saan soeng
  Gloss: I at mountain on
  Translation: I am on the mountain.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: jat go hou jan
  Gloss: one CLF good person
  Translation: a good person
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   14_Noun Adjective No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: loeng go pinggwo
  Gloss: two CLF apple
  Translation: two apples
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: pinggwo loeng go
  Gloss: apple two CLF
  Translation: two apples
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ni go naamjan
  Gloss: this CLF man
  Translation: this man
  Comment: The demonstrative ni ‘this’ can also be pronounced as li, lei, nei.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: John ge syu
  Gloss: John POSS book
  Translation: John’s book
  Comment: ge is a possessor marker in Cantonese, resembling de in Mandarin.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
  Words: John bun syu
  Gloss: John CLF book
  Translation: John’s book
  Comment: Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 6.3
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   20_Noun Possessor No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo ge syu
  Gloss: gloss I POSS book
  Translation: my book
  Comment: ge is a possessor marker in Cantonese, resembling de in Mandarin
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo bun syu
  Gloss: I CLF book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Zixian Qiu Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Zixian Qiu Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: hou daai
  Gloss: very big
  Translation: very big
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: keoi leng gwotau
  Gloss: (s)he beautiful excessively/too much
  Translation: (S)He is excessively beautiful.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Zixian Qiu Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause NA Zixian Qiu Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer NA Zixian Qiu Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo sik zo janwai ngo toungo
  Gloss: I eat PGV because I hungry
  Translation: I ate because I am hungry.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo fan-zo zihau, lokjyu la
  Gloss: I sleep-PFV after, rain PRT
  Translation: After I slept, it rained.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: fong leoibin jau saam zoeng dang
  Gloss: room inside have three CLF chair
  Translation: There are 3 chairs inside the room.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: fong leoibin jau dang saam zoeng
  Gloss: room inside have chair three CLF
  Translation: There are 3 chairs inside the room.
  Comment: Not as productive as Numeral Noun (indefinite)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: go sei fung seon camyat dou-zo
  Gloss: that four CLF letter yesterday arrive-PFV
  Translation: Those four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: *go seon sei fung camyat dou-zo
  Gloss: the letter four CLF yesterday arrive-PFV
  Translation: lit. The four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: go sei fung seon camyat dou-zo
  Gloss: that four CLF letter yesterday arrive-PFV
  Translation: Those four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: sei fung seon camyat dou-zo
  Gloss: four CLF letter yesterday arrive-PFV
  Translation: Four letters arrived yesterday.
  Comment: Num N cannot be given a definite interpretation without a demonstrative (as in N2_06.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Zixian Qiu Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Zixian Qiu Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Zixian Qiu Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo m heoi
  Gloss: I NEG go
  Translation: I don’t go.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
  Words: m leng
  Gloss: NEG beautiful
  Translation: not beautiful
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ceotbin mou gwai
  Gloss: outside NEG-have ghost
  Translation: There aren’t any ghosts outside.
  Comment: “mou” is the negative counterpart of “jau (have, there is/are)”
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ni do hung faa
  Gloss: this CLF red flower
  Translation: this red flower
  Comment: The demonstrative ni ‘this’ can also be pronounced as li, lei, nei.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: hung-sik ge ni do faa
  Gloss: red-colour GE this CLF red flower
  Translation: this red flower
  Comment: “ge” is a linking particle that links the attributive adjective and the noun it modifies.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: nei dim tai ni sei bun syu
  Gloss: you how see this four CLF book
  Translation: What do you think about these four books?
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: *nei dim tai ni zung syu sei bun
  Gloss: you how see four CLF this kind book
  Translation: lit. What do you think about these four books of this kind?(´・_・`)
  Comment: The order is possible in this type of context:ngo jiu ni zung syu sei bun (I want this kind book four CLF, ‘I want four books of this kind.’)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: *nei dim tai sei bun ni zung syu
  Gloss: you how see four CLF this kind book
  Translation: lit. What do you think about these four books of this kind?(´・_・`)
  Comment: The order is possible in this type of context:ngo maai-zo sei bun ni zung syu (I buy-PFV four CLF this kind book, ‘I bought four books of this kind.’)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: nei faan-zo lei me?
  Gloss: you return-PFV come Q
  Translation: (How come/Is that) you come back?
  Comment: In Cantonese, there are several sentence final particles that can type the sentence as a question. They denote various communicative functions and convey the attitude and emotion of the speaker. Some of them can be applied to all kinds of questions, while some of them are specifically related to some interrogative question constructions. For example, “me” can only occur in yes/no questions, and “a” can only mark a question when it is accompanied by other interrogative question constructions
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
  Comment: For example, “me” can only occur in yes/no questions, and “a” can only mark a question when it is accompanied by other interrogative question constructions such as “A-not-A” constructions, copula questions and wh-questions. Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 18.3.1
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo muijat jam di seoi
  Gloss: I every-day drink some water
  Translation: I drink water every day.
  Comment: di ‘some’ is not a classifier.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Comment: The statement “keoi-dei jam gaafe (they drink coffee, ‘Do they drink coffee?’)” can be changed in to a question with intonation. According to native speakers’ judgments, the speaker tend to seeks confirmation through this question form as its English counterpart “They drink coffee?”, but the speaker may try to ask a yes/no question at the same time.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: nei lei me? A: lei.
  Gloss: Q: you come Q Q A: come
  Translation: Q: Are you coming? A: Yes.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: Mary hoji laudai aa? A: hoji.
  Gloss: Q: Mary can Q A: can
  Translation: Q: Can Mary stay? A: Yes.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: Mary hoji laudai aa? A: hoji laudai.
  Gloss: Q: Mary can Q A: can stay
  Translation:  Q: Can Mary stay? A: Yes, she can stay.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: nei toungo me? A: hai (aa).
  Gloss: Q: you hungry Q A: be (PRT)
  Translation: Q: Are you hungry? A: Yes.
  Comment: It is more frequent and more natural to attach a sentence final particle to this form of answer.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: jaumou jan lei-zo? A: jao
  Gloss: Q: has-has not people come-PFV? A: has
  Translation: Q: Did anyone come? (lit. Was there anyone that come? ) A: Yes.
  Comment: Not sure. “jau” (has, there is/are) is considered to be an existential verb in this example.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: A: nei ngo-zo me? A: mou.
  Gloss: Q: you hungry-PFV Q A: not-have
  Translation: Q: Are you hungry? A: No.
  Comment: “mou” is a existential negative marker.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: nei heoi me? A: m heoi.
  Gloss: Q: you go Q? A: NEG go.
  Translation: Q: Are you going? A: No.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: Mary mou faanhok me? A: hai (mou faanhok) (aa).
  Gloss: Q: Mary NEG go-school Q? A: be (NEG go-school) (PRT)
  Translation: Q: Did Mary not go to school? A: Yes (she did not go to school).
  Comment: It is more natural and more frequent to attach the sentence final particle (in contrast with Q20 where the answer is natural without the sentence final particle)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Q: Mary mou faanhok me? A: mou (faanhok)
  Gloss: Q: Mary NEG go-school Q? A: NEG (go-school)
  Translation: Q: Did Mary not go to school? A: No (she did not go to school).
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Zixian Qiu Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Mary mui jat hai ukkei sik yat go pinggwo
  Gloss: Mary every day at home eat one CLF apple
  Translation: Mary eats an apple at home every day.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: dimgaai Mary mui jat hai ukkei sik yat go pinggwo
  Gloss: why Mary every day at home eat one CLF apple
  Translation: Why does Mary eat an apple at home every day?
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo muijat jam seoi
  Gloss: I every-day drink water
  Translation: I drink water every day.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Speaker A and speaker B are back from the supermarket. Speaker A says: ceng fong ngaunaai jap bingsoeng
  Gloss: please put milk in fridge
  Translation: Please, put the milk in the fridge!
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Speaker A and speaker B are back from the supermarket. Speaker A says: ceng fong (go) di ngaunaai jap bingsoeng
  Gloss: please put (that) some milk in fridge
  Translation: Please, put the milk in the fridge!
  Comment: di ‘some’ is not a classifier.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo syu
  Gloss: yesterdat I buy-PFV book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo (yat) bun syu
  Gloss: yesterdat I buy-PFV (one) CLF book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo syu
  Gloss: yesterdat I buy-PFV book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book/Yesterday I bought books. (can mean either one or more than one book).
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo lo-zo syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV book. but I leave-PEF-PFV pen.
  Translation: I took the book, but I left the pen.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: There was a book and a pen on the table. ngo lo-zo (go) bun syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo (go) zi bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV (that) CLF book. but I leave-PEF-PFV (go) CLF pen.
  Translation: I took the book, but I left the pen.
  Comment: The demonstrative “go”(“that”) may or may not be present.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo syu
  Gloss: yesterday I buy-PFV book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: camjat ngo maai-zo di syu
  Gloss: yesterday I buy-PFV some book
  Translation: Yesterday I bought some books.
  Comment: di ‘some’ is not a classifier.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: There were books and pens on the table. ngo lo-zo syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV book, but I leave-PEF-PFV pen.
  Translation: I took the books, but I left the pens.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: There were books and pens on the table. ngo lo-zo (go) di syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo (go) di bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV (that) some book, but I leave-PEF-PFV (go) some pen.
  Translation: I took the books, but I left the pens.
  Comment: di ‘some’ is not a classifier.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: John guncaat-dou jyutgwong
  Gloss: John observe-DOU moon
  Translation: John observed the moon.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: John guncaat-dou go jyutgwong
  Gloss: John observe-DOU CLF moon
  Translation: John observed the moon.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo jiuceng-zo John
  Gloss: I invite-PFV John
  Translation: I invited John.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: ngo gin-dou lou John
  Gloss: I see-DOU old John
  Translation: I saw the old John.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: There was a book and a pen on the table. ngo lo-zo bun syu, daanhai ngo lau-dai-zo zi bat.
  Gloss: I take-PFV CLF book. but I leave-PEF-PFV CLF pen.
  Translation: I took the book, but I left the pen.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: sinsaang, ceng gwolei
  Gloss: sir please come-here
  Translation: Sir, please come here.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: nei wai sinsaang, ceng gwolei
  Gloss: this CLF sir please come-here
  Translation: lit. *This/The Sir, please come here.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: Mary, gan ngo lei (la)
  Gloss: Mary with I come (PRT)
  Translation: Mary, come with me!
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: neoisi-mun, ceng gwolei
  Gloss: lady-PL please come-here
  Translation: Ladies, please come here.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Zixian Qiu Forum
+ w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article Yes Zixian Qiu Forum
  Words: nei gei wai neoisi, ceng gwolei
  Gloss: this several CLF lady please come-here
  Translation: lit. *These/The ladies, please come here.
  Comment: Not sure.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Zixian Qiu Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Zixian Qiu Forum