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Catalan

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: cat
  latlong: 41.401535, 2.169799  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Txuss Martin Forum
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   02_Verb Subject Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   03_Verb Object Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   04_Object Verb No Txuss Martin Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Txuss Martin Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Txuss Martin Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Txuss Martin Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Txuss Martin Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Txuss Martin Forum
   13_Adjective Noun Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   15_Numeral Noun Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   16_Noun Numeral No Txuss Martin Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Txuss Martin Forum
   19_Possessor Noun Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Txuss Martin Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
  Words: la meva casa
  Gloss: the.SG.FEM my.SG.FEM house.SG.FEM
  Translation: 'My house'
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
  Words: anirem a casa teva
  Gloss: go.FUT.1PL to house.SG.FEM your.SG.FEM
  Translation: 'We'll go to your house'
  Comment: This order is especially frequent with 'house', although it can also be found with other nouns, e.g. 'amor meu' ('my love'). Notice that when the noun precedes the pronominal possessor the determiner is usually not realized.
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Txuss Martin Forum
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Txuss Martin Forum
  Words: En Joan ha vingut / ha menjat pome-s
  Gloss: the.SG.M John have.3SG come.PTCP / have.3SG eat.PTCP apple-PL
  Translation: John has come / has eaten apples
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: *La=veuré la teva mare
  Gloss: ACC.3SG.F=see.FUT.1SG the.SG.F POSS.2SG.F mother
  Translation: I will see your mother
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Txuss Martin Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Txuss Martin Forum
+ Extra Examples Yes Txuss Martin Forum
  Words: En Joan diu que vindrà demà
  Gloss: the.SG.M John say.3SG that come.3SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: John says that he will come tomorrow
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El noi el=veu-ré demà
  Gloss: the.SG.M boy ACC.3SG.M=see-1SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: I will see the boy tomorrow
  Comment: the object clitic has to obligatorily precede the finite verb
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El noi el=veu-ré demà
  Gloss: the.SG.M boy ACC.3SG.M=see-1SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: I will see the boy tomorrow
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: el noi i la noia
  Gloss: the.SG.M boy and the.SG.F girl
  Translation: the boy and the girl
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Que vin-dràs demà?
  Gloss: Q come-2SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: Will you come tomorrow?
  Comment: The particle is optional in Catalan, but its use is widespread
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: En Joan pregunta que qui ha vingut
  Gloss: the.SG.M John ask.3SG that who have.PRS.3SG come.PTCP
  Translation: John asks who has come?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: dos nois i dues noies
  Gloss: two boy.PL and two.F girl.PL
  Translation: two boys and two girls
  Comment: agreement is limited to one and two
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: *Avui menjarà la noia les pomes
  Gloss: today eat.FUT.3SG the.SG girl the.PL apples
  Translation: Today the girl will eat the apples
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Un noi
  Gloss: INDF boy
  Translation: a boy
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Un noi i una noia
  Gloss: INDF.M boy and INDF.F girl
  Translation: a boy and a girl
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Compra si vols comprar
  Gloss: buy.IMP.2SG if want.PRS.2SG buy.INF
  Translation: buy if you want to buy
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Saps si en Joan ha vingut
  Gloss: know.PRS.2SG if the John has come
  Translation: Do you know if John has come?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Ell menja avui i ella menjarà demà
  Gloss: he eat.PRS.3SG today and she eat.FUT.3SG tomorrow
  Translation: He eats today and she will eat tomorrow
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: De nen anava a escola cada dia
  Gloss: of child, he go.PST.IPFV.3SG to school each day
  Translation: As a child, I used to go to school every day
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Vaig a viure a Barcelona
  Gloss: go.PRS.1SG to live.INF to Barcelona
  Translation: I'm going to live in Barcelona
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Amb la Maria
  Gloss: with the Mary
  Translation: With Mary
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El meu pare i la meva mare
  Gloss: the.SG.M POSS.SG.M father and the.SG.F POSS.SG.F mother
  Translation: my father and my mother
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Les tres noies
  Gloss: the.PL.F three girl.PL
  Translation: the three girls
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: si arrib-es tard, truca=m
  Gloss: COND arrive-PRS.2SG late, call=me
  Translation: if you arrive late, call me
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: menja-r-em
  Gloss: eat-FUT-1PL
  Translation: we will eat
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: A la Maria, li=dona-ré el llibre
  Gloss: to the.SG.F Mary DAT.SG=give.FUT.1SG the.SG.M book
  Translation: I will give the book to Mary
  Comment: This is a case of clitic left-dislocation
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: *La=veu-rem a la noi-a
  Gloss: ACC.3SG.F=see.FUT.1PL to the.SG.FEM girl
  Translation: We will see the girl
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: La Maria i la Marta hi=aniran i ens=trucaran
  Gloss: the.SG.F Mary and the.SG.F Marta LOC=go.FUT.3PL and ACC.PL=call.FUT.3PL
  Translation: Mary and Marta will go there and will call us
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Vingué
  Gloss: come.PST.3SG
  Translation: he came
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Ani-ré amb en Pere i amb la Maria
  Gloss: Go-FUT.1SG with the.SG.M Peter and with the.SG.F Mary
  Translation: I will go with Peter and Mary
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Vingué
  Gloss: come.PST.3SG
  Translation: he came
  Comment: expresses an action finished
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: estic menjant
  Gloss: be.1SG eat.PTCP.PROG
  Translation: I am eating
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El=vull trencar
  Gloss: ACC.3SG.M=want.PRS.1SG break.INF
  Translation: I want to break it
  Comment: this is a case of clitic climbing
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: En Joan ha marxat / La Maria ha marxat
  Gloss: the.SG.M John have.3SG leave.PTCP / the.SG.F Mary have.3SG leave.PTCP
  Translation: John has left / Mary has left
  Comment: Passives are not considered past participles
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Qui ha vingut?
  Gloss: who have.3SG come.PTCP?
  Translation: Who has come?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El llibre se-rà editat la setmana vinent
  Gloss: the.SG.M book.SG.M be-3SG.FUT publish.PTCP the.SG.F week.SG.F next
  Translation: The book will be published next week
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: A Barcelona, hi=aniré demà
  Gloss: to Barcelona, LOC=go.1SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: I'll go to Barcelona tomorrow
  Comment: This is a case of clitic left-dislocation
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: De llibre-s, en=vull tres
  Gloss: of book-PL PART=want.1SG.PRS three
  Translation: I want three books
  Comment: PART = Partitive. This is a case of clitic left-dislocation
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Li=diré a la Maria que vingui
  Gloss: DAT.3SG=tell.1SG.FUT to the.SG.F Mary that come.3SG.SBJV
  Translation: I'll tell Mary to come
  Comment: Colloquial catalan, unlike normative Catalan, shows dative doubling with full DPs. It never shows accusative doubling
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Que vin-drà en Joan demà?
  Gloss: Q come-3SG.FUT the.SG.M John tomorrow
  Translation: Will John come tomorrow?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Victoria Mateu Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
  Words: no té pas gaire interès
  Gloss: NEG have.PRES.2SG much interest
  Translation: 'He doesn't have much interest'
  Comment: The particle 'pas' is optional and is frequently used to emphasize negation. The negative particle 'no' must always be present.
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Txuss Martin Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Txuss Martin Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Txuss Martin Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Txuss Martin Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Txuss Martin Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
  Words: aquests dos nens
  Gloss: these two boys
  Translation: 'These two boys'
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Victoria Mateu Forum
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
  Words: els dos nens aquests
  Gloss: the two boys these
  Translation: 'These two boys'
  Comment: The use of the determiner is obligatory
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Victoria Mateu Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
  Words: Beus café cada matí?
  Gloss: drink.PRES.2SG coffee every morning
  Translation: Do you drink coffee every morning?
  Comment: When the subject is an overt DP we find verb-subject inversion, e.g. 'Beu café en Joan?’ (‘Does John drink coffee?). However, when the subject is null, intonation is the only distinction between a declarative and a question, e.g. 'Beus café cada mati' ('You drink coffee every morning') vs. 'Beus café cada matí?' ('Do you drink coffee every morning?')
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
+ Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
  Words: Beu café en Joan?
  Gloss: drink.PRES.3SG coffee the John
  Translation: Does John drink coffee?
  Comment: The declarative version would be 'En Joan beu café' ('John drinks coffee'))
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Victoria Mateu Forum
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Victoria Mateu Forum
  Comment: An intonational break is needed between the particle and the verb, e.g. ‘Puges? - Sí, pujo.’(‘Are you going up? – Yes, I am’).
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Victoria Mateu Forum
  Comment: An intonational break as well as a second negative particle before the verb are needed, e.g. Conduixes? – No, no condueixo (‘Do you drive? – No, I don’t‘). Conduixes? – *No, condueixo (‘Do you drive? – No, I don’t‘)
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Victoria Mateu Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Victoria Mateu Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Victoria Mateu Forum
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Victoria Mateu Forum
  Comment: Verb-subject inversion is usually required in Catalan wh- questions; however, this seems to be optional with 'per què' ('why') questions. E.g. Per què en Joan té tres cotxes? ('Why does John have three cars?')
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Victoria Mateu Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Victoria Mateu Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Victoria Mateu Forum