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Cypriot Greek

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: ell
  latlong: 35.10,33.22  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: O Kostas irten arga.
  Gloss: the Kostas arrived late.
  Translation: Kostas arrived late.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Efien o Kostas.
  Gloss: Left the Kostas.
  Translation: Kostas left.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: O Kostas egorasen aftokiniton.
  Gloss: The Kostas bought car.
  Translation: Kostas bought a car.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 04_Object Verb No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Aftokiniton egorasen (o Kostas).
  Gloss: car bought (the Kostas)
  Translation: Kostas bought a car.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: O Kostas eferen pagoton.
  Gloss: the Kostas brought ice-cream
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *O Kostas pagoton eferen.
  Gloss: the Kostas ice-cream brought.
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 07_Verb Subject Object Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Eferen o Kostas pagoton.
  Gloss: brought the Kostas ice-cream
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Eferen pagoton o Kostas.
  Gloss: brought ice-cream the Kostas
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Pagoton o Kostas eferen.
  Gloss: ice-cream the Kostas brought
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Pagoton eferen o Kostas.
  Gloss: ice-cream brought the Kostas
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Me tin Marian.
  Gloss: with the Mary
  Translation: with Mary.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *tin Marian me.
  Gloss: the Mary with
  Translation: with Mary
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: O oreos pinakas.
  Gloss: the beautiful painting
  Translation: The beautiful painting.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: O pinakas o oreos.
  Gloss: the painting the beautiful
  Translation: The beautiful painting.
  Comment: Without "determiner spreading", the adjective cannot follow the noun (i.e. *O pinakas oreos, is ungrammatical).
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Tria aftokinita.
  Gloss: three cars
  Translation: Three cars.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 16_Noun Numeral No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Aftokinita tria.
  Gloss: cars three
  Translation: Three cars.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Tuton to aftokiniton.
  Gloss: this the car
  Translation: This car.
  Comment: Without the determiner this structure is ungrammatical (i.e. *Tuton aftokiniton.).
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: To aftokiniton tuton (en tu Kosta).
  Gloss: the car this (is of Kostas)
  Translation: This car belongs to Kostas.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Tis Marias i mana.
  Gloss: the.GEN Mary.GEN the mother
  Translation: Mary's mother.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: I mana tis Marias.
  Gloss: the mother the.GEN Mary.GEN
  Translation: The mother of Mary.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *tu/tis to spitin
  Gloss: his/her the house
  Translation: His/her house.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: To spitin mu/su/tu/tis/mas/sas/tus.
  Gloss: the house my/your/his/her/our/your/their
  Translation: My/your/his/her/our/your/their house.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Enan prasin-on vivli-on
  Gloss: a-NEUT.NOM.SG green-NEUT.NOM.SG book-NEUT.NOM.SG
  Translation: A green book.
  Comment: Also in the plural (i.e. dio prasin-a vivli-a 'two-NEUT.NOM.PL green-NEUT.NOM.PL book-NEUT.NOM.PL' two green books)
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: To vivli-on en prasin-on.
  Gloss: the.NEUT.NOM.SG book-NEUT.NOM.SG is green-NEUT.NOM.SG
  Translation: The book is green.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: polla mitsin
  Gloss: very small-NEUT.NOM.SG
  Translation: Very small.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Enan prasinon polla vivlion.
  Gloss: a green very book.
  Translation: A very green book.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Marios Andreou Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Ipen oti efien.
  Gloss: said-3SG.PST that left-3SG.PST
  Translation: He said that he left.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Ipen efien oti.
  Gloss: said-3SG-PST left-3SG-PST that
  Translation: He said that he left.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Efien giati ethelen na fai.
  Gloss: leave-3SG-PST because want-3SG-PST to eat-3SG
  Translation: He left because he wanted to eat.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Efien ethelen na fai giati.
  Gloss: leave-3SG.PST want-3SG.PST to eat-3SG because
  Translation: He left because he wanted to eat.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: En tria mora mes tin stratan.
  Gloss: are three children in the street
  Translation: There are three children in the street.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *En mora tria mes tin stratan.
  Gloss: are children three in the street
  Translation: There are three children in the street.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Ta tessera grammata irtasin extes.
  Gloss: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: The four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Ta grammata tessera irtasin extes.
  Gloss: the letters four arrived yesterday
  Translation: The four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Ta tessera grammata irtasin extes.
  Gloss: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: The four letters arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Tuta ta tessera grammata irtasin extes.
  Gloss: These the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: These four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *Pe mu gia tessera grammata.
  Gloss: tell me about four letters
  Translation: Tell me about (those) four letters.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Marios Andreou Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Marios Andreou Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Marios Andreou Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Marios Andreou Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: En erkete ekso.
  Gloss: not come-3SG outside
  Translation: He is not coming outside.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Marios Andreou Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Marios Andreou Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Tuta ta prasina ta vivlia.
  Gloss: these the green the books
  Translation: These green books.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Tuta ta vivlia ta prasina.
  Gloss: these the books the green
  Translation: These green books.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: *ta vivlia ta prasina tuta
  Gloss: the books the green these
  Translation: These green books.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Marios Andreou Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Marios Andreou Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Marios Andreou Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Tuti i tesseris (i) fili.
  Gloss: these the four (the) fili
  Translation: These four friends.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Marios Andreou Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Marios Andreou Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Marios Andreou Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Marios Andreou Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Marios Andreou Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Q: Ise etimos? A: Ne.
  Gloss: Q: be-2SG ready? A: Yes
  Translation: Q: Are you ready? A: Yes
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Q: Evales tes ntomates mes to psigion? A: *Evala
  Gloss: put.PST.2SG the tomatoes in the fridge? A: put.PST.1SG
  Translation: Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge? A: *Put (intended answer: yes).
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Marios Andreou Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Milas ispanika? A: Oi.
  Gloss: speak-2SG Spanish? A: No
  Translation: Do you speak Spanish? A: No.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Marios Andreou Forum
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Egorases galan? A: En egorasa.
  Gloss: buy.PST.2SG milk? A: Not buy.PST.1SG
  Translation: Did you buy milk? A: Not bought.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Marios Andreou Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Marios Andreou Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Marios Andreou Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Marios Andreou Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Pinn-o neron.
  Gloss: drink-1.SG.PRS water.ACC
  Translation: I drink water.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Marios Andreou Forum
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Eferen to nero.
  Gloss: Bring.PST.3SG DEF.SG.ACC water.SG.ACC
  Translation: She/he brought the water.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Irten enas antras.
  Gloss: Come.PST.3SG INDF man
  Translation: A man came.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Marios Andreou Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Marios Andreou Forum
+ w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Espasa to potirin.
  Gloss: Break.PST.1SG DEF.ACC glass.ACC
  Translation: I broke the glass.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Efera efimerides.
  Gloss: Bring.PST.1SG newspaper.PL.ACC
  Translation: I brought newspapers.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Marios Andreou Forum
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Marios Andreou Forum
  Words: Efera tes efimerides.
  Gloss: Bring.PST.1SG DEF.PL.ACC newspaper.PL.ACC
  Translation: I brought the newspapers.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Marios Andreou Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Marios Andreou Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare No Marios Andreou Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Marios Andreou Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare No Marios Andreou Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Marios Andreou Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Marios Andreou Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Marios Andreou Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Marios Andreou Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker Yes Marios Andreou Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Marios Andreou Forum