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Dholuo

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: luo
  latlong: -0.325345,34.976671  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 02_Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: nitie kombe adek e ot
  Gloss: NITIE chair three LOC house
  Translation: there are three chairs in the house
  Comment: Subjects always precede verbs (predcaites with verbal morphology), regardless of definiteness. Indefinite subjects follow the existential predicate, nitie, definite subjects precede it. Nitie does not seem to carry any verbal morphology.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   03_Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   04_Object Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Hilda Koopman Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Yes, fits the definition (neutral context, no passive) cf example Forum
  Words: ere manyien? Onge wach. En mana ni Achieng guok o.kay.o
  Gloss: where ma.new? NEG.exist word. 3s.cop MANA that Achieng dog 3SPERF.bit.perf
  Translation: What happened? Nothing. Except that a dog bit Achieng. (maybe closer to: Achieng got dog-bitten)
  Comment: The object is clearly fronted, and represents new information. The predicate is otherwise active, with both the subject and the object precede the verb. This is also an answer to a "what happened today" question: angoma o.timoro kawuono (what SA.PERF.happen.MID today?. Answer: Achieng guok okayo.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   10_Object Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Hilda Koopman Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   15_Numeral Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   16_Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Hilda Koopman Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Hilda Koopman Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Hilda Koopman Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Extra Examples No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: nitie kombe adek e ot
  Gloss: there.are chairs three in house
  Translation: there are three chairs in the house
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: né ! nitie ngaw adek e ndara
  Gloss: Look.imp! there.is bushbuck three on road
  Translation: Watch out! there are three bushbucks on the road
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: barupe angwen go nyo o.bir.o nyoro
  Gloss: letter.PL four those PAST(yesterday) arrived yesterday
  Translation: those four letters arrived yesterday
  Comment: In this context, the Dem (go) is required; the plural gi (plural) is not sufficient (see next example))
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: pichni adek gi ineno nade
  Gloss: pictures three PL.def 2S.see how
  Translation: what do you think about the three paintings
  Comment: In this context, the (definite) plural article is natural
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: buge adek gi ineno nango
  Gloss: book.pl three PL 2S.see.o how
  Translation: ‘What do you think about these three books?
  Comment: gi (also plural) used as prox demonstratives
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: A. lith B lith
  Gloss: A. hurt.imperf? B hurt.imperf
  Translation: A: Does it hurt? B it's hurting
  Comment: In imperfective aspect, there is a a zero 3rd person expletive. the perfective aspect always bundles perfective aspect and subject agreement: olith (it.hurt.perfective))
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum