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Digo

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: dig
  latlong: -4.347872,39.512329  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Simba wa-fwa
  Gloss: CL1a.lion 3SG.PST-die
  Translation: The lion died
  Comment: Canonical order; the lion is a switch topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: A-chi-nyamala yuno bwana.
  Gloss: 3SG-CONS-be.silent CL1.DEM CL1a.gentleman
  Translation: The man fell silent. (Lit: He fell silent that man.)
  Comment: Used when subject NP is a continued topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: na=hu-som-e-ni Chi-digo
  Gloss: EMPH=1PL-read/study-SBJV-PL CL7-Digo
  Translation: let us read/study the Digo language
  Comment: Canonical order.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: mtihani wa-u-henda vinono
  Gloss: CL3.exam 3SG.PST-CL3.OBJ-do well
  Translation: in the exam, you did well
  Comment: Used when object NP is a switch topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Yuya bwana wa-rima munda.
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1a.gentleman 3SG.PST-farm CL3.field
  Translation: That man farmed a field.
  Comment: Canonical order; the man is a switch topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: yuya bwana hura wari ka-ya-u-rya
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1a.gentleman CL14.DEM CL14.rice 3SG.NEG-PST-CL14.OBJ-eat
  Translation: that man, that food, he did not eat it
  Comment: Subject NP and object NP are both topics. This order is only possible with a verb complement marker (u‑ in this example) which agrees with the object (hura wari).
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   07_Verb Subject Object No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Mwisho wa-henda mimba yuyu.
  Gloss: finally 3SG.PST-do/make CL9.pregnancy CL1.DEM
  Translation: Finally she became pregnant. (Lit: Finally she made pregnancy, that one.)
  Comment: Non-canonical order. The subject NP (yuyu) is a right-dislocated continued topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: pesa sino hu-na-hewa
  Gloss: CL10.money 1PL 1PL-PRS-give.PASS
  Translation: we are given money (lit. money we are given)
  Comment: The object NP has been topicalized. A coreferential verb complement marker is optional.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 10_Object Verb Subject Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: M-kongo n-ka-mu-ona mino.
  Gloss: CL1-sick_person 1SG-HOD-3SG.OBJ-see 1SG
  Translation: I have seen the sick person. (Lit: The sick person, I have seen her, me.)
  Comment: The non-canonical order OVS is possible so long as there is a verb complement marker (mu- in this example) which agrees with the object NP. The object NP is a left-dislocated topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: ka-ya-gomba na mutu
  Gloss: 3SG.NEG-PST-speak COM CL1.person
  Translation: he did not speak to (with) anyone
  Comment: The comitative marker na functions here as a preposition.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: u-chere ndani ya madzi
  Gloss: 2SG-PERSISITIVE inside CL9.ASS CL6.water
  Translation: you (sg) are still in the water
  Comment: The preposition consists of the locative noun ndani (inside) plus the class 9 form of the associative marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Steve Nicolle Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: chitabu chi-ziho, meza n-ziho
  Gloss: CL7.book CL7-heavy, CL9.table CL9-heavy
  Translation: a heavy book, a heavy table
  Comment: Most adjectives agree with the noun class of the head noun, except a small number borrowed (via Swahili?) from Arabic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   15_Numeral Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: nyumba hamsini na mb-iri
  Gloss: CL10.houses fifty and CL10-two
  Translation: fifty two houses
  Comment: The invariable form hamsini (50) is borrowed from Arabic; -iri (2) agrees with the noun class of the head noun.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: nyumba mi-rongo mi-tsano na mb-iri
  Gloss: CL10.houses CL4-tens CL4-five and CL10-two
  Translation: fifty two houses
  Comment: mirongo (tens) is a class 4 noun and so mitsano (five) takes class 4 agreement; mbiri (two) agrees with the class 10 head noun nyumba.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Yuya mutu; yuno mkpwazangu
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1.person; CL1.DEM CL1.my_wife
  Translation: That person; that wife of mine (lit. that my wife)
  Comment: Digo has 4 demonstrative 'series' with variant forms of three of these, giving up to 9 demonstratives per noun class.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: A-jeni hinya a-iri
  Gloss: CL2-guests CL2.DEM CL2-two
  Translation: These two visitors
  Comment: Digo has 4 demonstrative 'series' with variant forms of three of these, giving up to 9 demonstratives per noun class.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   19_Possessor Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Mtoto wa Juma
  Gloss: CL1.child CL1.ASS Proper_Name
  Translation: Juma's child (child of Juma)
  Comment: ASS = associative marker
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: nyumba y-angu, nyumba y-ehu, nyumba-y-o, nyumba y-enu, nyumba-y-e, nyumba y-ao
  Gloss: CL9.house CL9-1SG.POS, CL9.house CL9-1PL.POS, CL9.house-CL9-2SG.POS, CL9.house CL9-2PL.POS, CL9.house-CL9-3SG.POS, CL9.house CL9-3PL.POS,
  Translation: my house, our house, your (sg) house, your (pl) house, her/his house, their house
  Comment: The 2SG and 3SG possessive pronouns are monosyllabic and appear as affixes on the head noun. Possessive pronouns always occur adjacent to the head noun or demonstrative.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: chitabu chi-ziho, meza n-ziho
  Gloss: CL7.book CL7-heavy, CL9.table CL9-heavy
  Translation: a heavy book, a heavy table
  Comment: Some adjectives (often borrowed from Arabic) are invariable, e.g. moho (hot), tayari (ready), rahisi (easy, cheap)
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: chitabu ni chi-ziho, meza ni n-ziho
  Gloss: CL7.book COP CL7-heavy, CL9.table COP CL9-heavy
  Translation: the book is heavy, the table is heavy
  Comment: The copula can also agree with the noun class to describe temporary states: chitabu chi tayari (the book is ready), meza i tayari (the table is ready). NB 'tayari' (ready) is an invariable adjective.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Muhi huno ni m-kulu muno.
  Gloss: CL3.tree CL3.DEM COP CL3-large DEG
  Translation: This tree is extremely large.
  Comment: Can also mean: This tree is too large.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Steve Nicolle Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Wa-laga kala a-nda-mu-pha pesa.
  Gloss: 3SG.PST-promise COMP 3SG-FUT-3SG(obj)-give money
  Translation: S/he promised that s/he would give him/her money.
  Comment: The complementizer 'kala' is a reduced form of 'ku-kala' (INF-be). When the subject of the matrix and complementizer clauses is the same, as in this example, the complementizer is optional.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Wa-fungbwa mana wa-iya matumbingwa ga atu.
  Gloss: 3SG.PST-tie.PAS for 3SG.PST-steal CL6.eggs.POS CL6.ASS CL2.people
  Translation: He was jailed because he stole some people's eggs.
  Comment: Adverbial subordinator = mana
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Extra Examples NA Steve Nicolle Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: atu a-iri a-njina
  Gloss: CL2.people CL2-two CL2-other
  Translation: two other people
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: atu osi a-iri
  Gloss: CL2.people CL2-all CL2-two
  Translation: all two people; both of the people
  Comment: Digo does not have a definite article.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Wakati anaaza, phatupa chichetu cha kare, na bada ya kuaona hara asichana airi waaonera mbazi.
  Gloss: time they_were_wishing there_passed woman(DIM) of old, and after seeing those girls two she_saw_for_them pity
  Translation: While they were wishing (not to be eaten), there passed an old woman, and after seeing those two girls she had pity on them.
  Comment: A demonstrative seems to be obligatory in definite contexts.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Steve Nicolle Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Steve Nicolle Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Steve Nicolle Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Steve Nicolle Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Vyo kpweli mino si-nda-kpwenda-angamika ko Nairobi?
  Gloss: how truly 1SG(emphatic) 1SG.NEG-FUT-ITIVE-get_lost DEM Place_Name
  Translation: Now surely will I not get lost there in Nairobi?
  Comment: The prefix 'si-' is a portmanteau form combining negation and the 1SG subject marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: Dze ku-nda-nwa chai rero?
  Gloss: Q 2SG.NEG-FUT-drink tea today
  Translation: Won't you drink tea (have breakfast) today?
  Comment: The prefix 'ku-' is a portmanteau form combining negation and the 2SG subject marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: mara nyinji simba ka-nyendeka macheye-macheye
  Gloss: CL6.times CL6.many CL1a.lion 3sg.NEG-walk alone-alone
  Translation: usually a lion does not walk alone
  Comment: The prefix 'ka-' is a portmanteau form combining negation and the 3SG subject marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: Lakini Mwiya, ta-a-mu-on-ere.
  Gloss: but Proper_Name NEG-3PL-3SG(object)-see-PFV
  Translation: But they did not find Mwiya.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: si-we mutu wa handzo; u-kongo hinyo si-o wa ku-mu-rya; mino si dza atu a-njina
  Gloss: NEG-2SG CL1.person CL1.ASS CL10.lies; CL14-sickness CL14.DEM NEG-CL14 CL14.ASS INF-3SG(obj)-eat; 1SG(emphatic) NEG like CL2.people CL2.others
  Translation: you are not a liar; this sickness is not fatal; I am not like other people
  Comment: The copula in affirmative clauses is either 'ndi' plus a class marker, or the invariable copula 'ni'; both are negated using 'si' with or without a class
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Mimi si hiye mu-m-godza-ye. (Compare: Mino ni mimi mutu.)
  Gloss: 1SG NEG CL1.DEM 2PL-3SG(obj)-await-CL1.REL (1SG COP 1SG CL1.person)
  Translation: I am not he for whom you are waiting. (Compare: I am just a person.)
  Comment: The negative copula 'si' contrasts with the affirmative copula 'ni'.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Ta-ku-nda-kala na phuto rero. (Compare: Kun-nda-kala na phuto rero.)
  Gloss: NEG-CL17-FUT-be-COM CL10.storms today.
  Translation: There will not be storms today. (Compare: There will be storms today.)
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: Ligundzu che ta-ku=na magari barabara-ni. (Compare: Ligundzu che ku=na magari barabara-ni.)
  Gloss: morning HOD NEG-CL17=COM CL6.cars road-LOC
  Translation: This morning there were no cars on the road. (Compare: This morning there were cars on the road.)
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: yuya m-chetu m-dide
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1-woman CL1-small
  Translation: that junior wife (i.e. the second wife of a husband)
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: wira huno wa ku-sononeka
  Gloss: CL14.song CL14.DEM CL14.ASS INF-be_sorrowful
  Translation: this sorrowful song
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: hara asichana a-iri
  Gloss: CL2DEM CL2.girls CL2-two
  Translation: those two girls
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Steve Nicolle Forum
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral Yes Steve Nicolle Forum
  Words: asichana hinya a-iri
  Gloss: CL2.girls CL2.DEM CL2-two
  Translation: these two girls
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Steve Nicolle Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Steve Nicolle Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Steve Nicolle Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Steve Nicolle Forum