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  ISO 639-3 Code: nld
  latlong: 51.841692,5.858651  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie bouwt veel mooie huizen
  Gloss: Mary builds many nice.AGR house.PL
  Translation: Mary builds a lot of nice houses
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Nnụnụ ojii atọ ndị ahụ
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 02_Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman only in narrative contexts. Forum
  Words: komt Jan gisteren bij de bakker; is al het brood op
  Gloss: comes John yesterday at the bakery, is all the bread up
  Translation: (wh/th/en) John gets to the bakery yesterday, (and) all the bread is gone
  Comment: OK in narrative contexts(cf Gert Jan Postma on the forum), and in joke contexts. But "Komt Jan gisteren bij de bakker" needs further continuation, and cannot stand on its own. Hence I set V-S to NO. Which (V-second) languages have narrative V-first, or V first in joke settings? This could be a future development (pehaps for V second languages).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie bouwt dit jaar twee kamers
  Gloss: Mary build this year two rooms
  Translation: Mary is building two rooms this year
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie heeft Jan hard geduwd
  Gloss: Mary has John hard ge.push.PRTC
  Translation: Mary has pushed John hard
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie belt vandaag haar twee broers op
  Gloss: Mary calls today her two brothers up
  Translation: Mary is calling her two brothers today
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie heeft Jan hard geduwd
  Gloss: Mary has John hard ge.push.PRTC
  Translation: Mary pushed John hard
  Comment: If this sentence is embedded, the auxiliary 'heeft' can immediately precede or follow the participle; dat Marie Jan hard heeft geduwd/geduwd heeft.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   07_Verb Subject Object No Hilda Koopman Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Jan woont in een groot huis
  Gloss: John lives in a big house
  Translation: John is living in a big house.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Het pad het bos in begint hier
  Gloss: The path the forest in starts here
  Translation: The path into the forests starts here
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: grot-e huiz-en
  Gloss: big.AGR house.PL
  Translation: big houses.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   14_Noun Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie heeft met twee mensen gepraat
  Gloss: Marie has with two people talked
  Translation: Marie has talked with two people
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   16_Noun Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Dit huis is mooier dan die twee huizen
  Gloss: This house is beautiful.er than those two houses
  Translation: This house is more beautiful than those two houses
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Dit huis is mooier dan die twee huizen
  Gloss: This house is beautiful.er than those two houses
  Translation: This house is more beautiful than those two houses
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Jans huis is klein
  Gloss: John.s house is small
  Translation: John's house it small
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Het huis van Marie staat te koop
  Gloss: The house of Mary stays to buy
  Translation: Mary's house is for sale
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Lotte Hendriks Forum
  Words: Wat lees je? M'n boek
  Gloss: What read 2SG? 1SG.POSS book
  Translation: What are you reading? My book
  Comment: 1SG: “mijn” (strong), “m’n” (weak); 1PL: “ons”, “onze”, (see additional example) 2SG: “jouw” (strong), “je” (weak); 2PL: “jullie”; 2.POL: “uw” 3SG MASC: “zijn” (strong), “z’n” (weak); 3SG.FEM “haar” (strong), “d’r” (weak); 3PL: “hun”.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Wat lezen jullie? Ons boek.
  Gloss: what read 2PL? Our book.sg
  Translation: What are you reading? Our book
  Comment: Two readings (at least): there is a single book being read together, or each reader is reading copies of the same book.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Wat lezen jullie? Onze boeken.
  Gloss: What are you reading? Our.pL book.PL
  Translation: what are you reading? our books
  Comment: multiple books. I am not sure it could be the same book, say a textbook. Dutch speakers out there, what do you think?
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Lotte Hendriks not with definite noun phrases..Perhaps OK with specific indefinites Forum
  Words: Wat ben je aan het lezen? Een boek van mij/*?het boek van mij
  Gloss: What are you at the read.INF? A book of me /*?the book of my
  Translation: What are you reading? A book of mine/the book of mine
  Comment: Postnominal genitives are pretty fine, as long as the noun phrase is indefinite;
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Een groot genoeg huis
  Gloss: A big enough house
  Translation: A big enough house.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words:  Zij hebben een groot genoeg huis/ (?)Zij wonen in [groot genoeg]-e huizen / **Ze wonen in grot-e genoeg huizen
  Gloss: They have a big enough house/ ? They live in [big enough]-AGR houses/ **They live in [big]-e enough houses
  Translation: big enough houses
  Comment: With singular Ns [a groot genoeg huis] ('a big enough house' is fine. With plural nouns, forcing the agreement to appear lead to speaker variability in acceptablility. Some accept,some reject agreement following the adjectival phrase (behaving like a phrasal affix). I am unaware of any speakers allowing the Agr on the adjective. It is clear where the agreement would go (after the AP). This shows that adjectival agreement in Dutch is a phrasal affix/clitic, and not an inflectional category on the A. This s
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie heeft zo hard gelachen dat Jan vertrokken is
  Gloss: Mary has so loud laugh.PCPT that John left is
  Translation: Mary laughed so loudly that John has left.
  Comment: 'laugh' takes 'have' as perfect auxiliary; leave takes 'be.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Je zal wel niet geloven dat Jan Marie opgebeld heeft
  Gloss: You will yes not believe.PRCT that John Mary up.ge.call.PCPT has
  Translation: You probably won't believe that John called Mary
  Comment: that is homophonous with the neutral singular demonstrative (dat.sg.neut).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie zal hier komen hoewel Jan al vertrokken is.
  Gloss: Mary will come here how.yes John already left is
  Translation: Mary will come although John has already left.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: [[dat hij zich zo verzette] tenspijt]
  Gloss: that he SELF so resisted] despite
  Translation:  ‘despite the fact that he resisted so much’
  Comment: Gertjan Postma wrote on the forum: I know of (possibly) one post-clause subordinator. Usually as stand-alone clause. Does, however, with difficulty, integrate into the sentence. This form does not seem to be part of HK's speech, hence NO
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Pas op! Er lopen twee kinderen op de weg
  Gloss: lit.Fit up! There walk.pl two children on the road
  Translation: Watch out! There are two kids on the road
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: we hebben de vier brieven gisteren ontvangen
  Gloss: we have the four letters yesterday received
  Translation: we got the four letters yesterday
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: wat vind je van deze drie posters?
  Gloss: what find you of these drie posters?
  Translation: what do you think about these three posters?
  Comment: I strongly prefer the demonstrative in the context where there are just three posters on the wall. Maybe the definite determiner is even excluded in this case. The determiner de is perfect however if there are three posters as well as two paintings on the wall. De demonstrative is not stressed.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ik denk dat Marie gisteren niet met Jan over het weer heeft gepraat
  Gloss: I think that Marie yesterday NEG with John about the weather has talked
  Translation: I think that Mary did not talk about the weather with John yesterday
  Comment: The negation niet is at the left edge of the "VP" ; specific non focused objects must precede niet. The folllowing follow niet: non focused, PPs, (directional, dative, instrumentals, commitatives, localitive, idiomatic PPs, small clause complements/separable particles, and the verb cluster (containing the finite verb in non root sentences, and the cluster minus the finite verb in root environments
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Ik denk dat Marie de brief gisteren niet op de post gedaan heeft
  Gloss: I think that Marie the letter yesterday NEG in de mail done has
  Translation: I think that Marie didn't put the letter in the mail yesterday
  Comment: NEG does not immediate precede V, but the verb phrase. (non focused definite objects must precede niet)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Hilda Koopman only when the main verb undergoes verb second in root clauses. XP Vf......Neg ......( V) CP Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Hilda Koopman It is a bit unclear to me how you want me to deal with geen. see the comments on the example; I set this to no: at least one of the context can have a distinct negation. But this is not dependent on type of predciate, but on the presence of an indefinite Forum
  Words: Jan is niet normaal
  Gloss: John is NEG normal
  Translation: John is not normal
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Hij is geen dokter; Hij is niet normaal
  Gloss: He is NEG-INDEF doctor; He is NEG normal
  Translation: He is not a doctor/ He is not normal
  Comment: With adjectives, the standard Neg is used, but with predicative nouns, NEG is relalized as a negative determiner "g-een" with immediately adjacent indefinite. (g-indef N). Here the form *hij is niet een dokter with the regular negation niet seems excluded, unless een doctor is contrastively focused. On the other hand with predciative adjectives the standards negation occurs. I don't know how to set this property: it could be yes (as it would be done for lesser studied languages on the basis of class, or n
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Hij is geen dokter; Hij is niet normaal
  Gloss: He is NEG.INDEF doctor; He is NEG normal
  Translation: Hij isn't a doctor; He is not normal
  Comment: With adjectives, the standard Neg is used, but with predicative nouns, NEG is relalized as a negative determiner "g-een" . (g-indef N). The form #hij is niet een dokter' with the regular negation 'niet' seems rather bad, unless doctor is contrastive (or polarity is focused.)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Hilda Koopman this is tricky! In negative exsistentials (and in general with negative indefinites) standard negation does not show up, but negation is encoded in a negative deteminer (g-een) (not one). Since this is a general property having to do with the presence of an indefinite, I set it to No. Forum
  Words: er is niemand op straat
  Gloss: there is noone in the street
  Translation: There is noone in the street
  Comment: With indefinite subjects, negation is realized as a negative determiner (n-ie-man-d). This is generally the case, and not dependent on the presence of an exsistential predicate, so this property is set to NO.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Tom is niet in zijn kamer
  Gloss: Tom is not in his room
  Translation: Tom is not in his room
  Comment: with a definite subjet.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: er is niemand op straat
  Gloss:  there is noone in the street
  Translation: there is noone in the street
  Comment: With indefinite subjects, negation is realized as a negative determiner (n-ie-man-d). This is generally the case, and not dependent on the presence of an existential predicate, therefore this property is set to NO.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ik vind deze grote huizen lelijk
  Gloss: I find these big.AGR house.PL ugly
  Translation: I find these big houses ugly
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: A: is je broer naar Parijs gegaan? B. Ja /nee /jawel) *Is/*Is gegaan/*hij is
  Gloss: A: Is your borther to Paris gone? B. ja / no/ yesdid)/ *is/ *is gone/*he is/
  Translation: A. Did your brother go to Paris? yes/no/ (*did/did go/he did /
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: A: is je broer met de TGV naar Parijs gegaan? B. Ja /*wel/ *(ja) is/*Is gegaan/*hij is/ ja, dat is ie
  Gloss: Yes/ *well/ *(yes) is gone/ *yes he is/ yes that is he
  Translation: Yes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: A: Is je broer met de TGV naar Parijs gegaan? B. nee /*niet/ *(hij) Is niet/ nee, dat is hij niet
  Gloss: Is your brother with the TGV to Paris gone? B. No/*niet/*(he) is not/ no, that is he not
  Translation: Did your brother go to Paris with the TGV? No.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Is je broer uiteindelijk niet naar Parijs gegaan? B. Nee. (*ja)
  Gloss: Is your brother in the end not to Paris gone? B. No (*yes)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: A: is je broer niet naar Parijs gegaan? B. jawel. (hij is wel naar Parijs gegaan
  Gloss: Is your brother not to Paris gone? B. Yeswel. (he is wel to Paris gone)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second Yes Lotte Hendriks Forum
  Words: Jan eet elke dag een appel.
  Gloss: John eats every day an apple
  Translation: “John eats an apple every day.”
  Comment: The example holds as well for auxiliaries. Only the finite auxiliary is fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Elke dag eet Jan een appel.
  Gloss: Every day eats John an apple
  Translation: “Every day John eats an apple.”
  Comment: The example holds as well for auxiliaries. Only the finite auxiliary is fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Appel-tjes eet Jan elke dag.
  Gloss: Apple-DIM.PL eats John every day
  Translation: “Little apples, John eats every day.”
  Comment: The example holds as well for auxiliaries. Only the finite auxiliary is fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Jan zal voortaan iedere dag om 7 uur naar huis fietsen.
  Gloss: John will henceforth every day at 7 o’clock to home cycle.
  Translation: “From now on John will cycle home every day at 7 o’clock.”
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: * Elke dag Jan /hij /'k eet een appel.
  Gloss: Every day John / he / I eat an apple
  Translation: “Every day John / he / I eat(s) an apple.” (* means ungrammatical)
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: * Jan zal eten elke dag een appel.
  Gloss: John will eat every day an apple
  Translation: “John will eat an apple every day.”
  Comment: Only the finite auxiliary can be fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second Yes Lotte Hendriks Forum
  Words: (*) Wie eet elke dag een appel?
  Gloss: Who eats every day an apple
  Translation: “Who eats an apple every day?”
  Comment: For most speakers of Dutch this sentence is ill formed, ‘er’ needs to be included in this context, and for others ‘er’ seems to be optional.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Wie eet er elke dag een appel?
  Gloss: Who eats there every day an apple
  Translation: “Who eats an apple every day?”
  Comment: For most speakers of Dutch ‘er’ is obligatory in this context, for others ‘er’ seems to be optional.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Hoe-veel appels eet Jan elke dag?
  Gloss: How-many apples eats John every day
  Translation: “How many apples does John eat every day?”
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Waarom eet Jan elke dag een appel?
  Gloss: Why eats John every day an apple
  Translation: “Why does John eat an apple every day?”
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: * Waarom wie eet een appel?
  Gloss: Why who eats an apple
  Translation: “Why who eats an apple?” (* means ungrammatical)
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: * Waarom Jan / hij / ‘k eet elke dag een appel?
  Gloss: Why John / he / I eat every day an apple
  Translation: “Why does John / he / I eat(s) an apple every day?” (* Means ungrammatical)
  Comment: The finite verb must immediately follow the wh-phrase; neither subject clitics nor object clitics are possible.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ik heb vandaag kaas en wijn gekocht
  Gloss: I have today cheese and wine bought
  Translation: I bought cheese and wine today
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: *Ik heb van (de) kaas gekocht/ Ik heb wat kaas gekocht
  Gloss: *I have of (the) cheese bought/ I have what cheese bought
  Translation: I bought some cheese
  Comment: The unstressed indeterminate wh-word "wat", "what" can combine with mass nouns; wat does not qualify as an indefinite article.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: *Ik heb vandaag van de kaas en wijn gekocht/ Ik heb vandaag wat kaas en wijn gekocht
  Gloss: *I have today of the cheese and wine bought/ I have today what cheese and wine bought
  Translation: I bought some cheese and wine today
  Comment: The indeterminate unstressed wh-word "wat" (what) is not an indefinite or a partitive article.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ??Ik heb iets kaas gekocht:
  Gloss: I have IETS cheese bought.
  Comment: iets (something) is not quite good with (mass) nouns for me in past tense sentences (but seems fine in downward entailing contexts). ng .
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: a. *Ik heb kaas maar eventjes in de ijskast gelegd/ / b.Ik heb maar eventjes kaas in de ijskast gelegd
  Gloss: I have cheese PART PART in the fridge put/ I have PART PART cheese in the fridge put/
  Translation: intended: I have put the cheese in the fridge
  Comment: Definite mass nouns in object must have a definite article.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ik heb de kaas maar eventjes in de ijskast gelegd.
  Gloss: I have the cheese PART PART in the fridge put
  Translation: (I went ahead and) I put the cheese in the fridge
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: *Marie kan in vijf minuten fiets verkopen.
  Gloss: Mary can in 5 minutes bike sell.INF
  Translation: intended: Mary can sell a bike in five minutes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie kan in vijf minuten een fiets verkopen
  Gloss: Mary can in 5 minutes a bike sell
  Translation: Mary can sell a bike in five minutes
  Comment: The indefinite article is reduced and unstressed [schwa n]. It is related to the numeral one /e:n/ which bears stress
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words:  * Marie kan in vijf minuten (een) fiets verkopen.
  Gloss:  Mary can in 5 minutes (a) bike sell
  Translation: intended: Mary can sell bikes in 5 minutes
  Comment: an indefinite sing count noun in O cannot have a plural reading.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Mary kan vast de fiets in vijf minuten aan iemand verkopen
  Gloss: May can surely the bike in five minutes to someone sell
  Translation: Mary can surely sell in the bike to someone in five minutes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words:  Marie kan goed fietsen opknappen
  Gloss: Mary can well bike.PL fix
  Translation: May can fix bikes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: *Marie kan van de fietsen opknappen
  Gloss: Mary can of the bikes fix
  Translation: intended: Mary can fix bikes
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Marie kan de fietsen wel eventjes voor je opknappen.
  Gloss: Mary can the bikes POL PART for you fix up.
  Translation: Mary can fix the bikes. (approx. translation: Mary can probably fix the bikes for you quickly. The positive polarity particle (wel) and eventjes (little whiles) are difficult to translate.)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: * Ik heb gisteren maan gezien
  Gloss: I have yesterday moon seen
  Translation: (attempted): I saw the moon yesterday
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ik heb gisteren de maan gezien
  Gloss: I have yesterday the moon seen
  Translation: I saw the moon yesterday
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ik heb Marie gisteren ontmoet
  Gloss: I have Mary yesterday met
  Translation: I met Marie yesterday
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum