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Finnish

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: fin
  latlong: 64,26  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
  Words: Juna tule-e
  Gloss: train.NOM come-PRS.3SG
  Translation: The train is coming.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   02_Verb Subject Yes Anders Holmberg Possible chiefly with verbs of occurrence/appearance. Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: On sattunut onnettomuus.
  Gloss: is happened accident.NOM
  Translation: There has been an accident.
  Comment: Possible chiefly with verbs of occurrence/appearance.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
  Words: Anna juo kahvi-a.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
  Words: Anna juo kahvi-a.
  Gloss: Anna drink.PRS.3SG coffee-PART
  Translation: Anna drinks/is drinking coffee.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   04_Object Verb No Anders Holmberg Possible if the sentence has an initial focused constituent. Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Anna juo kahvi-a.
  Gloss: Anna drink.PRS.3SG coffee-PART
  Translation: Anna drinks/is drinking coffee.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No Anders Holmberg Possible if the sentence has an initial focused constituent. Forum
  Comment: Possible if the sentence has an initial focused constituent.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   07_Verb Subject Object No Anders Holmberg Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Anders Holmberg Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Anders Holmberg Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: kohti talo-a
  Gloss: towards house-PART
  Translation: towards the/a house
  Comment: There are both postpositions and prepositions. The prepositions are few (about ten). They can all alternatively follow the noun. Most of them take a complement noun with partitive case, while the 'pure' postpositions are constructed with a noun in genitive case.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: talo-n alla
  Gloss: house-GEN under
  Translation: under the/a house
  Comment: Postpositions are noun-like. They are constructed with a genitive complement in a structure which looks like a Possessor-Noun structure.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: iso talo
  Gloss: big house
  Translation: big house
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   14_Noun Adjective No Anders Holmberg Forum
   15_Numeral Noun Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   16_Noun Numeral No Anders Holmberg Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Anders Holmberg Forum
   19_Possessor Noun Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   20_Noun Possessor No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: minu-n talo-ni
  Gloss: 1SG-GEN house-1SG.POSS
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: talo-ni
  Gloss: house-1SG.POSS
  Translation: my house
  Comment: The pronominal possessor is a clitic/inflection.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: iso-t talo-t
  Gloss: big-PL house-PL
  Translation: (the) big houses
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
  Words: iso-ssa talo-ssa
  Gloss: big-INESS house-INESS
  Translation: in the/a big house
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Talo-t ovat iso-t.
  Gloss: house-NOM.PL are big-NOM.PL
  Translation: The houses are big.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: aika iso
  Gloss: quite big
  Translation: quite big
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Anders Holmberg Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Hyvää että lapset tulivat kotiin.
  Gloss: good that children came home
  Translation: Good that the children came home.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Oli kivaa uida vaikka vesi oli kylmä
  Gloss: was nice swim although water was cold
  Translation: It was nice to swim although the water was cold
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Extra Examples No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: kolme taloa
  Gloss: three house-PART
  Translation: three houses
  Comment: From two up the head noun is partitive singular.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: ne kolme taloa
  Gloss: the/those three house-PART
  Translation: the three houses
  Comment: Some specification is required for a definite reading, such as the demonstrative ne (neutral between distal/proximate and used 'almost like a definite article').
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Anders Holmberg Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Anders Holmberg Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Anders Holmberg Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Anders Holmberg Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Anders Holmberg Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Minä e-n juo-0 kahvia. Minä e-n juo-nut kahvia
  Gloss: I.NOM NEG-1SG drink coffee. I.NOM NEG-1SG drink-PST.PTCP coffee
  Translation: I don't drink coffee. I didn't drink coffee.
  Comment: In the past tense, the main verb has the PST PRTC form. In the present it looks like the present tense stem, but actually ends in a null consonant (taking the value of the following consonant or else is a glottal stop).
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: tuo uusi talo
  Gloss: that new house
  Translation: that new house
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: nämä kolme taloa
  Gloss: these three house-PART
  Translation: these three houses
  Comment: From two up the head noun is partitive singular.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Tuli-ko Anna? Tuli.
  Gloss: came-Q Anna? came
  Translation: Did Anna come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: On-ko Anna tullut? On.
  Gloss: is-Q Anna come? is
  Translation: Has Anna come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: On-ko Anna tullut? On tullut.
  Gloss: is-Q Anna come? is come
  Translation: Has Anna come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Tuli-ko Anna? Kyllä tuli.
  Gloss: came-Q Anna? yes came
  Translation: Did Anna come? Yes she did.
  Comment: kyllä has other meanings/uses, as well : indeed, certainly, actually
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
+ Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Tuli-ko kukaan? Kyllä tuli.
  Gloss: came-Q anyone? Yes came
  Translation: Did anyone come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Tulee-ko Anna? Ei
  Gloss: NEG-2SG-Q you come? NEG-3SG
  Translation: Is Anna coming? No.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Tulee-ko Anna? Ei tule.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Anders Holmberg Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Anders Holmberg Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Anders Holmberg Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Marja juo maitoa
  Gloss: Marja drink.PRS.3SG milk.PARTITIVE
  Translation:  Marja drinks milk
  Comment: Indefinite mass nouns are marked with partitive case, and contrasts with definite mass nouns, which are marked with accusative. This counts as not bare (must have an article) given the property definition.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Anders Holmberg Definiteness is encoded through Part/Acc case Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Anders Holmberg Forum
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Anders Holmberg Forum
  Words: Marja joi maidon
  Gloss: Marja drink.PST.3SG milk.ACC
  Translation: Marja drank the milk
  Comment: Definiteness encoded by case: PART vs. ACC
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Anders Holmberg Forum