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French

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: fra
  latlong: 48.866667, 2.333333  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Marc mange.
  Gloss: Marc eat-PRS
  Translation: “Marc eats.”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   02_Verb Subject No Chris Collins Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Les oiseaux mangent des vers.
  Gloss: DEF-DET-PL bird-PL eat-PRS IND-DET-PL worm-PL
  Translation: "The Birds eat worms."
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   04_Object Verb No Chris Collins Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Les oiseaux mangent des vers.
  Gloss: DEF-DET-PL bird-PL eat-PRS INDF-DET-PL worm-PL
  Translation: The birds eat worms.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   06_Subject Object Verb No Chris Collins Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Chris Collins Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Chris Collins Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Chris Collins Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Chris Collins Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Le chat est sur le lit.
  Gloss: DEF-DET-M cat be-PRS LOC DEF-DET-M bed
  Translation: The cat is on the bed.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Chris Collins Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Chris Collins French has both AN and NA. See Cinque (2010) for the clusters of properties associated with prenominal and postnominal As in Romance, and how these map onto the two classes and orders in Germanic. This would be a good property to further develop! (cmnt added by hk) Forum
  Words: le nouveau café
  Gloss: DEF-DET-M new-M cafe
  Translation: the new cafe
  Comment: French has a small class of adjectives that must be placed before the Noun. These categories include adjectives that describe beauty (beau/belle, age (vieux, jeune) , bon, mauvais, jeune,). Many adjectives take on a different meaning depending on their placement. See Cinque's The Syntax of Adjectives(2010) for recent synthesis, and analyses (comparative romance/ germanic).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: la robe noire
  Gloss: DEF-DET-F dress black-F
  Translation: the black dress
  Comment: Many adjectives take on a different meaning depending on their placement. See Cinque's The Syntax of Adjectives(2010) for recent synthesis, and analyses (comparative romance/ germanic).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Il y a quatre saisons dans l'année.
  Gloss: 3SM there have-PRS four season-PL in DEF-DET year
  Translation: There are four seasons in the year.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   16_Noun Numeral No Chris Collins Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: cette table
  Gloss: DEM-F table
  Translation: this table
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Chris Collins Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Chris Collins Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: la maison de Julie
  Gloss: DEF-DET-F house POSS Julie
  Translation: Julie's house
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Vincent Homer The pronominal agrees with the possessed noun in gender and number. Forum
  Words: notre tante
  Gloss: POSS-1PL aunt
  Translation: Our aunt
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Vincent Homer Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Jean voit la grande maison
  Gloss: Jean see.3sg.pres the.fem.sg big.fem.sg house
  Translation: Jean sees the big house
  Contributor: Chris Collins
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: La fille sont belles.
  Gloss: DEF-DET.F.SG girl-F.SG be-PRS beautiful-F.SG
  Translation: The girl is beautiful.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: trop cher
  Gloss: too expensive
  Translation: too expensive
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Chris Collins Forum
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Jean est arrive.
  Gloss: Jean be.3sg.pres arrive.past.participle
  Translation: Jean arrived./John has arrived.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Jean a mange.
  Gloss: Jean have.3sg.pres eat.past.participle
  Translation: John ate./John has eaten.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Je pense que tu es prêt.
  Gloss: 1SG think-PRS COMP 2SG be-PRS ready.
  Translation: I think that you are ready.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Chris Collins Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Je ne suis pas venu parce que mon fils est malade.
  Gloss: 1SG NEG AUX.PST NEG come because POSS-1SG son be-PRS sick.
  Translation: I did not come because my son is sick.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Chris Collins Forum
+ Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Paul me voit
  Gloss: Paul 1sg see.pres.3sg
  Translation: Paul sees me.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: le professeur chante
  Gloss: Def professor sing.pres.3sg
  Translation: The professor sings
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: la femme est arrive.e en retard
  Gloss: Def woman be.3sg.pres arrive.part.fem late
  Translation: The woman arrived late.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Je ne sais pas
  Gloss: 1sg Neg1 know.1sg.pres Neg2
  Translation: I don't know.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Jean dit que Marie chante
  Gloss: Jean say.pres.3sg Compl Marie sing.pres.3sg
  Translation: Jean says that Marie sings.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Vincent Homer Forum
  Words: Il y a deux lampes sur le bureau.
  Gloss: 3SG there have-PRS two lamp-PL LOC DEF-DET.M desk.
  Translation: There are two lamps on the desk.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Vincent Homer Forum
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Vincent Homer Forum
  Words: Les deux lampes sont sur le bureau.
  Gloss: DEF-DET.PL two lamp.PL be.PRS LOC DEF-DET.M desk
  Translation: The two lamps are on the desk.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Vincent Homer Forum
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Vincent Homer Forum
  Words: Les trois garçons mangent au café.
  Gloss: DEF-DET.M.PL three boy-PL eat-PRS LOC DEF-DET-M cafe
  Translation: The three boys eat at the cafe.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Vincent Homer Forum
  Words: Ces deux jouets
  Gloss: DEM.PL two toy-PL
  Translation: “those two toys”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Vincent Homer Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Vincent Homer Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Vincent Homer Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Vincent Homer Standard negation is formed using two particles, one that precedes, and one that follows, the finite verb (the main verb or the auxiliary if there is one). The particle that precedes is optional. Forum
  Words: Je ne sais pas.
  Gloss: 1SG NEG know-PRS NEG.
  Translation: I do not know.
  Comment: ne is often pronounced (but sometimes just very reduced).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Vincent Homer Standard negation is formed using two particles, one that precedes, and one that follows, the finite verb (the main verb or the auxiliary if there is one). The particle that precedes is optional. Forum
  Words: Je ne fume pas.
  Gloss: 1SG NEG smoke-PRS NEG.
  Translation: “I do not smoke”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Vincent Homer Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Vincent Homer Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Ce jeune homme
  Gloss: Dem-SG.M young man
  Translation: “that young man”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Cette voiture blanche
  Gloss: DEM-SG.F car white-F.SG
  Translation: That white car
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Chris Collins Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Chris Collins Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ces deux lampes
  Gloss: DEM-PL two lamp-PL
  Translation: Those two lamps
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Vincent Homer The answer is "yes" because we count "est-ce que..." as a Q-marker, as in "est-ce qu'il pleut ?" ("is it raining?"). Forum
  Words: Est-ce que tu aimes faire du shopping?
  Gloss: Q 2SG like-PRS do-INF shopping
  Translation: Do you like to shop?
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Vincent Homer The answer could be "yes" if we decided to treat -t as a Q-marker. Ex. "Jean aime-t-il Marie ? (Jean likes T he Marie?). Some varieties of French, viz Québec French, clearly have a clause internal Q marker. Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Vincent Homer Forum
  Words: Vous parlez francais?
  Gloss: 2PL speak-PRS French
  Translation: “Do you speak French?”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Vincent Homer Only with subject clitics: Vient-il ? (comes he?); *vient Jean? (comes Jean?) Forum
  Words: Parlez-vous francais?
  Gloss: Speak.PRS-2PL French
  Translation: “Do you speak French?”
  Comment: In order for this property to be valid, the subject must be a pronoun.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes Vincent Homer Only with subject clitics: Est-il venu ? (is he come?); *est Jean venu? (is Jean come?) Forum
  Words: Est-il venu?
  Gloss: AUX-3SG.M come?
  Translation: Has he come?
  Comment: In order for this property to be valid, the subject must be a pronoun.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Vincent Homer Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Vincent Homer Forum
  Words: Est-ce que tu aimes faire du shopping? Oui/Non.
  Gloss: Q 2SG like-PRS do-INF shopping? Yes/No.
  Translation: Do you like shopping ? Yes/No.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Vincent Homer Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Vincent Homer Forum
  Words: Est-ce que tu aimes faire du shopping? Non.
  Gloss: Q 2SG like-PRS do-INF shopping? NEG
  Translation: Do you like shopping ? No.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Vincent Homer Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Vincent Homer A bare "yes" answer to the question "il n'est pas parti finalement ?" (he did not leave after all?) is unacceptable. If there is a continuation, it becomes acceptable, ex.: "Oui, il n'est pas parti" (yes, he did not leave). It bears also saying that the form of the question (with or without a Q marker, with or without complex inversion, etc.) is important. Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Vincent Homer Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes Vincent Homer Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Vincent Homer Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Vincent Homer Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Vincent Homer Forum
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum