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Ga

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: gaa
  latlong: 5.555717,-0.196306  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: nuu ba
  Gloss: man AOR.come
  Translation: the man came
  Comment: aorist aspect is not phonetically expressed except under very restricted conditions. The definite marker (the) is only used when the referent has already been mentioned
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Kòfí sèlè
  Gloss: Kofi swim
  Translation: Kofi swam
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   02_Verb Subject No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: Yoo lɛ ye brodo
  Gloss: woman the eat bread
  Translation: The woman ate bread
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   04_Object Verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: nuu ko e-na bo
  Gloss: man certain PRF-see 2SING
  Translation: a certain man has seen you
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   06_Subject Object Verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: E-fo brodo kɛ kakla
  Gloss: 3SG-cut bread with knife
  Translation: She cut bread with a knife
  Comment: kɛ is the only real preposition in this language, and always in this function indicates an instrument
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: tsu-i a-mli
  Gloss: room-Pl ASSOC-inside
  Translation: in the room
  Comment: The noun-postposition construction is morphologically identical with the possessive
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   13_Adjective Noun No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: tsu-i agbo-i
  Gloss: house-PL big-PL
  Translation: big houses
  Comment: Agreement is in plural number only. There is no singular or singulative marker.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: tsu agbo
  Gloss: house big
  Translation: big house
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   15_Numeral Noun No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: tsu-i ekpaa
  Gloss: room-PL six
  Translation: six rooms
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: nɛkɛ be-aŋ lɛ
  Gloss: this time-LOC DEF
  Translation: during this time
  Comment: this demonstrative rarely if ever occurs without another demonstrative or a definite marker following the noun
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: shikpɔŋ nɛkɛ lɛ
  Gloss: land this DEF
  Translation: a plot (of land) of this kind
  Comment: the demonstrative normally occurs followed by the Definite marker. The consonant of the Definite marker is not pronounced in modern Ga, so that it is heard as a falling tone on a slight prolongation of the vowel occurring before it, in this case thus nɛkɛ́ !ɛ́ (where ! means downstep of high tone).
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: nuu tsu
  Gloss: man house
  Translation: man's house
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nuu lɛ adeka
  Gloss: man DEF box
  Translation: the man's box
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   20_Noun Possessor No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: mí-wòlò
  Gloss: 1SG.POSS-book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: adeka-i agbo-i
  Gloss: box-PL big-PL
  Translation: big boxes
  Comment: agreement in number only
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree NA Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Extra Examples Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: tsũ̀-ì ényɔ̃̀
  Gloss: building-PL two
  Translation: two buildings
  Comment: In some contexts could also be interpreted as definite
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: tsũ̀ kòmé lɛ
  Gloss: building one DEF
  Translation: the one building
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: tsũ̀-ì é!nyɔ̃ !lɛ
  Gloss: building-PL two DEF
  Translation: the two buildings/rooms
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu only in subjunctive and imperative Forum
  Words: Kofi á-ká-ba
  Gloss: Kofi SBJV-NEG.SBJV-come
  Translation: Kofi is not to come
  Comment: the prefixed a- and the high tone on ka both mark the following verb as subjunctive. The verb ba 'come' remains fully finite.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: Gbekɛ-bii lɛ bá-â
  Gloss: children-PL DEF com.NEG-NEG.IPFV
  Translation: The children didn't come.
  Comment: The constant negator in the declarative with this class of verbs is high tone on the verb, but this is always accompanied by one of three aspectual suffixes that are entirely different from the positive aspectual affixes, which are mainly prefixes.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Gbekɛ lɛ é-!dá-kò
  Gloss: child DEF NEG-grow-NEG.PRF.
  Translation: The child has not grown.
  Comment: In this tone class of verbs there is a prefix unique to declarative negatives plus a negative aspect suffix.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Negated by a replacive copula verb Forum
  Words: Jeee Kofi ji mi
  Gloss: NEG PN be 1SING
  Translation: I am not Kofi
  Comment: This negative particle is unique to identity expressions.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Jee Kofi
  Gloss: NEG PN
  Translation: It's not Kofi.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Negated by a replacive copula verb Forum
  Words: Sane lɛ bɛ mli
  Gloss: matter DEF not.be inside
  Translation: It isn' true
  Comment: Compare Distinct Negation of Location
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Same replacive copula as for existence Forum
  Words: Amɛ bɛ tsu lɛ mli
  Gloss: 3PL not.be room DEF inside
  Translation: They are not in the room
  Comment: Compare Distinct Negation of Existence
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: nakai nuumo bɔdɔbɔdɔ lɛ
  Gloss: that old.man weak DEF
  Translation: that weak old man
  Comment: DEF is required
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: gbekɛ̃ bibioo nɛ́!ɛ́
  Gloss: child small DEM.DEF
  Translation: that small child
  Comment: DEF is required
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: nakai adeka-i enyɔ lɛ
  Gloss: such box-PL two DEF
  Translation: those two boxes
  Comment: DEF is required
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
  Words: hĩĩ ényɔ̃̀ nɛ́!ɛ́
  Gloss: men two DEM.DEF
  Translation: these two men
  Comment: DEF is required
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting NA Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary NA Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb NA Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Forum