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Gungbe (Porto-Novo)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: guw
  latlong: 6.500899137995968,2.63671875  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Order in neutral clauses Forum
  Words: àsíbá wá
  Gloss: Asiba come
  Translation: Asiba came
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   02_Verb Subject No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: nù sìn, é ná kpóntè
  Gloss: drink water 3sg fut better
  Translation: Drink some water, you will get better
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   04_Object Verb Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àsíbá nù sìn
  Gloss: Asiba drink water
  Translation:  Asiba drank some water
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àsíbá jε sìn nù jí
  Gloss: Asiba start water drink top
  Translation: Asiba started drinking water
  Comment: OV structures usually require a sentence-final particle as the particle ‘top’ here.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   07_Verb Subject Object No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: ùn nyìn àwù xlán távò jí
  Gloss: 1sg throw shirt Prep table top
  Translation: I threw the shirt on the table
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   13_Adjective Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àwù yù
  Gloss: shirt black
  Translation: the/a black shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   15_Numeral Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àwù àwè
  Gloss: shirt two
  Translation: two shirts
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: Wémà ɛ̀nɛ̀ lɛ́ ( lɔ́ ) kò wá
  Gloss: letter four PL (Det) already come
  Translation: The four letters (in question) already arrived.'
  Comment: The "Det" ( lɔ́ ) is optional in this context. Its presence requires familiarity of the speaker and addressee; and seems to indicate that the speaker says something “noteworthy” about them. Note the plural here is obligatory in the definite context (but not in the indefinite. In Gbe, bare nouns could be interpreted as (in)definite depending on context.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àwù éhè
  Gloss: shirt this
  Translation: this shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àsíbá sín àwù
  Gloss: asiba Poss shirt
  Translation: Asiba's shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àwù àsíbá tɔ́n
  Gloss: shirt asiba Poss
  Translation: A/the shirt of Aba's
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àwù cè
  Gloss: shirt 1sgPoss
  Translation: my shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àwù yù crúcrú
  Gloss: shirt black dark
  Translation: a very black shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words:  ùn lìn ɖɔ̀ àsíbá ná dà mì
  Gloss: 1sg.nom think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc
  Translation: 1sg.nom think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: ní à lìn ɖɔ̀ àsíbá ná dà mì bé à má bí kpálí
  Gloss: if 2sg think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc then 2sg Neg smart at.all
  Translation: If you think that Asiba will marry me, then you are really not smart.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Extra Examples No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: Kpɔ́n! vì àwè tò àlìò (lɔ́ ) jí
  Gloss: look child two LOC road DET on
  Translation: 'Look! There are two children on the road.'
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: Kpɔ́n! vì àwè tò àlìò (lɔ́ ) jí
  Gloss: Look child two LOC road DET on
  Translation: Look! There are two children on the road.'
  Comment: The DET lɔ́ following road is optional in this sentence.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: Wémà ɛ̀nɛ̀ lɛ́ ( lɔ́ ) kò wá
  Gloss: Letter four PL (Det) already come
  Translation:  'The four letters already arrived.'
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: ùn zO àsíbá xlán àxìmɛ́
  Gloss: 1sg order Asiba Prep market
  Translation: I sent Asiba to the market
  Comment: This is an additional example, in which there is no numeral (and hence no (obligatory definite) plural either. In this context “market” is definite. It is important that such definites need not be locatives or in complement positions. Bare nouns can be interpreted as (in)definite in all argument positions..
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: ní à lìn ɖɔ̀ àsíbá ná dà mì bé à má bí kpálí
  Gloss: if 2sg think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc then 2sg Neg smart at.all
  Translation: If you think that Asiba will marry me, then you are really not smart.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: távò dàxó éhè
  Gloss: table big this
  Translation: this big table
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: távò dàxó éhè
  Gloss: table big this
  Translation: This big table
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: àsíbá wá  ̀
  Gloss: asiba came Q
  Translation: Did Asiwa come
  Comment: Yes-no questions are marked by low tone
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: A. àsíbá wá  ̀ ? B. n
  Translation: A:Did Asiba come? B: Yes.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
  Words: A. àsíbá wá  ̀ ? B. èhéò
  Gloss: A. asiba come Q B: no
  Translation: A. Did Asiba come? B: no
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Enoch Oladé Aboh Forum