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Hixkaryana

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: hix
  latlong: -0.821017,-58.798828  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb No Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: amna n-omok-no
  Gloss: 1+3 3SBJ-come-IMMEDPST
  Translation: We (exclusive) came.
  Comment: Hixkaryana is canonically OVS. The pronoun "amna", however, as a subject, must appear left-adjacent to the verb. Subjects can also appear before the verb when they are focused. Otherwise subjects are post-verbal. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 9) Note that all examples in this database for Hixkaryana come from Derbyshire (1986), Hixkaryana and linguistic typology. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: n-eweh-yatxhe woriskomo komo
  Gloss: 3SBJ-bathe-COLL.NONPST woman COLL
  Translation: The women are bathing/taking a bath.
  Comment: This is the unmarked, canonical word order for intransitives. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 31)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   03_Verb Object No Laura Kalin Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: kuraha y-onyhorye-no biryekomo
  Gloss: bow 3SBJ.3OBJ-make-IMMEDPST child
  Translation: The child made a bow.
  Comment: This is the unmarked, canonical word order for transitive sentences. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 31)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   05_Subject Verb Object No Laura Kalin Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Laura Kalin Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Laura Kalin Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Laura Kalin Forum
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: kanawa amna n-a-no
  Gloss: canoe 1+3 3SBJ-take-IMMEDPST
  Translation: We (exclusive) took the canoe.
  Comment: Hixkaryana is canonically OVS. The pronoun "amna", however, as a subject, must appear left-adjacent to the verb. Thus, here we have exceptional OSV word order. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 10)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ 10_Object Verb Subject Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: kuraha y-onyhorye-no biryekomo
  Gloss: bow 3SBJ.3OBJ-make-IMMEDPST child
  Translation: The child made a bow.
  Comment: This is the unmarked, canonical word order for transitives. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 31)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Laura Kalin Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: watma ke
  Gloss: club with
  Translation: with clubs/a club
  Comment: Hixkaryana is a postpositional language. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 19/39)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   13_Adjective Noun No Laura Kalin Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Utxun heno
  Gloss: Utxunu now.dead
  Translation: the late/now dead Utxunu
  Comment: (Derbyshire 1985:p. 26)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: asak kanawa
  Gloss: two canoe
  Translation: two canoes
  Comment: Numerals and the word "anaro" ('another') are the only elements that may precede a noun in an NP, aside from a possessor. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 28)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   16_Noun Numeral No Laura Kalin Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: biryekomo y-okn-ni
  Gloss: child 3-pet-POSSN
  Translation: the child's pet
  Comment: The possessor always precedes the possessee. The possessee is marked for person agreement with the possessor. Finally, the possessee carries a suffix indicating that it is possessed. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 26)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   20_Noun Possessor No Laura Kalin Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: noro hok-ru
  Gloss: 3 3.child-POSSN
  Translation: his child
  Comment: An overt pronominal possessor is only possible for third person and first person exclusive "amna". Otherwise the pronominal possessor must be null (i.e., for first person, second person, and first person inclusive). Just as with nominal possessors: the possessor always precedes the possessee. The possessee is marked for person agreement with the possessor (though in this case that agreement is null). Finally, the possessee carries a suffix indicating that it is possessed. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 9)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Laura Kalin Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Laura Kalin Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Laura Kalin Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Laura Kalin Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: karyhe rmahaxa
  Gloss: fast very
  Translation: very fast
  Comment: (Derbyshire 1985:p. 27)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Laura Kalin Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: See example for Clause Complementizer order.
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: tahataka-txhe
  Gloss: 3SBJ.come.out-after
  Translation: after he/she came out
  Comment: There are no independent words that serve as complementizers in Hixkaryana, though nonfinite verbs can productively be embedded under postpositions. There are also a couple of verbal suffixes (attaching to nonfinite verb forms) that serve to subordinate a nonfinite verb, like the example shown here. The subordinating suffix is -txhe. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 39)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause No Laura Kalin Forum
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: thenyehra tuna y-omok-nir ke
  Gloss: much water 3SBJ-come-NMLZ because
  Translation: because it was raining heavily (literally: because of the coming of much water)
  Comment: (Derbyshire 1985:p. 38); See also comment under C 02.
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Extra Examples NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: okomkurusu biryekomo heno y-osk-eko
  Gloss: bushmaster.snake child dead 3SBJ.3OBJ-bite-RECPST.COMPLETIVE
  Translation: It was a bushmaster snake that bit the child.
  Comment: This is an example with a focused subject, in which case the subject gets fronted before the object. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 74)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: asak kanawa w-eny-o
  Gloss: two canoe 1SBJ-see-IMMEDPAST
  Translation: I saw two canoes.
  Comment: (Derbyshire 1985:p. 26)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Laura Kalin Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Laura Kalin Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative No Laura Kalin Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Laura Kalin Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Laura Kalin Forum
+ Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix Yes Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: apaytara y-ar-hira n-exe-ye wekoko
  Gloss: chicken 3OBJ-take-NEG 3SBJ-be-DISTPST.COMPLETIVE hawk
  Translation: The hawk didn't take the chicken. (Literally: The hawk wasn't taking of the chicken.)
  Comment: Negation is always a suffix to a verb, but makes the verb it attaches to nonfinite. As such, it must be embedded somehow, in this case, under the copula 'be'. 'Be' thus takes the tense and aspect marking for the clause. See the other example for this property to see the non-negated counterpart of this sentence. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 138)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
  Words: apaytara y-ari-ye wekoko
  Gloss: chicken 3SBJ.3OBJ-take-DISTPST.COMPLETIVE hawk
  Translation: The hawk took the chicken.
  Comment: This is the non-negated version of the other example sentence for this property. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 138)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Laura Kalin Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Laura Kalin Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative NA Laura Kalin Forum
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Laura Kalin Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Laura Kalin Forum