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Hungarian

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: hun
  latlong: 47.606163, 18.984375  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Kati szalad.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] run[3SG.PRS.IND]
  Translation: `Kati is running'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Le-es-ett a hó.
  Gloss: down-fall-PST[3SG.IND] the snow[NOM}
  Translation: `The snow began to fall / It snowed'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Hall-om a zené-t.
  Gloss: hear-1SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ.PRS.IND the music-ACC
  Translation: `I hear the music'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Kati leves-t ev-ett.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] soup-ACC eat-PST.3SG.IND
  Translation: `Kati ate soup'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: A fekete kutya ugat-ja a hold-at.
  Gloss: the black dog[NOM.SG] bark-3SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ.PRS.IND the moon-ACC
  Translation: `The black dog is barking at the moon'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Kati leves-t ev-ett.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] soup-ACC eat-PST.3SG.IND
  Translation: `Kati ate soup'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ 07_Verb Subject Object Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Fel-tör-i a villa-nyél a tenyer-ed-et.
  Gloss: up-break-3SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ the pitchfork-handle[NOM.SG] the palm-2SG.POSSESSOR-ACC
  Translation: `The handle of the pitchfork will blister your palms'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   08_Verb Object Subject No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: A kutya Kati után szalad-t.
  Gloss: the dog[NOM.SG] Kati[NOM.SG] after run-PST[3SG]
  Translation: `The dog ran after Kati'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: A fekete kutya ugat.
  Gloss: the black dog[NOM.SG] bark[3SG.PRS.IND]
  Translation: `The black dog barks / is barking'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   14_Noun Adjective No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Hat kutya ugat.
  Gloss: six dog[NOM.SG] bark[3SG.PRS.IND]
  Translation: `Six dogs are barking'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   16_Noun Numeral No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Ez-ek a kalap-ok rondá-k.
  Gloss: this-PL[NOM] the hat-PL[NOM] ugly-PL
  Translation: `These hats are ugly'
  Comment: An alternative (archaic?) version is "Ez-en kalap-ok rondá-k", which has a different demonstrative and no article.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: (a) Kati kalap-ja
  Gloss: the Kati-NOM hat-POSS.3sg
  Translation: Kati's hat
  Comment: The definite article may belong to the whole construction, not the possessor, with names in the Upper-Tisza dialect.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: a te kalap-od
  Gloss: the you-NOM hat-POSS.2sg
  Translation: your hat
  Comment: The definite article is obligatory. Because personal pronouns cannot have an article, we know that it belongs to the whole construction.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Kati-nak a kalap-ja
  Gloss: Kati-DAT the hat-POSS.3sg
  Translation: Kati's hat
  Comment: This can be a single constituent, as shown by overt focus movement test.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   20_Noun Possessor No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: a te kalap-od
  Gloss: the you-NOM hat-POSS.2sg
  Translation: your hat
  Comment: The definite article is obligatory. Because personal pronouns cannot have an article, we know that it belongs to the whole construction.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Ez-ek a fekete kalap-ok rondá-k.
  Gloss: this-PL[NOM] the black hat-PL[NOM] ugly-PL
  Translation: `These black hats are ugly'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: A leves elég meleg.
  Gloss: the soup[NOM.SG] enough warm
  Translation: `The soup is warm enough'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Tud-om, hogy ki vagy.
  Gloss: know-1SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ COMP who[NOM.SG] be.2SG.PRS.IND
  Translation: `I know who you are'
  Comment: The same complementizer "hogy" introduces declarative and interrogative complements.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Tudom, hogy szeret-sz-e en-ni.
  Gloss: know-1SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ COMP like-2SG[PRS.IND]-Q eat-INF
  Translation: `I know whether you like to eat'
  Comment: The yes/no question marker "-e" is clause-final in the more strictly SOV relatives of Hungarian; in Hungarian it cliticizes to the finite verb, which is not necessarily clause-final. The subordinating complementizer is the invariant "hogy".
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Telefonál-j-ál, mi-elő-tt el-indul-sz.
  Gloss: phone-IMP-2SG what-front-LOC away-start-2SG
  Translation: `Call before you leave'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: hat asztal
  Gloss: six table
  Translation: `six tables'
  Comment: In the presence of a numeral the noun does not carry a plural marker: *hat asztal-ok.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: a hat kalap
  Gloss: the six hat
  Translation: `the six hats'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: a hat kalap
  Gloss: the six hat
  Translation: the six hats
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: ez/az a kalap
  Gloss: this/that the hat
  Translation: this hat / that hat
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Kati nem szalad.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] not run[3SG.PRS.IND]
  Translation: Kati isn't running
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: nem-hogy, ne-hogy
  Gloss: not-COMP, ne[SBJV]-COMP
  Translation: not, don't
  Comment: The negative particles have a variant where they are compounded with the subordinating complementizer. My own (published) analysis is that this negation is extra-clausal, so there is a "null higher verb" here.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Nincsenek rossz emberek.
  Gloss: notexist.PL bad person.PL
  Translation: `there aren't bad people'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Kati nincs itt.
  Gloss: Kati-NOM NEG.exist/loc.3sg here
  Translation: Kati isn't here
  Comment: "nincs(en)" is the same for existential and locative. 3pl is "nincsenek". In the 1st and 2nd persons the existential/locative verb takes standard negation ("nem vagyok" etc.), likewise in all persons in the past,
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Ez-ek a fekete kalap-ok rondá-k.
  Gloss: this-PL[NOM] the black hat-PL[NOM] ugly-PL
  Translation: `These black hats are ugly'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: ez-t a hat kalap-ot
  Gloss: this-ACC the six hat-ACC
  Translation: `these six hats, accusative'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Akarsz-e vizet?
  Gloss: want-2sg-Q water-ACC
  Translation: Do you want water?
  Comment: Q is obligatory in complement yes/no questions. In main clauses it is in complementary distribution with yes/no intonation.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting NA Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary NA Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb NA Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Question: Van itt valaki? Answer: Van.
  Gloss: exist.3sg here someone exist.3sg
  Translation: Is there someone here? [=Anybody home?] Yes, there is.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Nem ment.
  Gloss: not went
  Translation: No, he/she didn't [go].
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Nem ment el? Answer: Nem.
  Gloss: not went-3sg? Answer: no
  Translation: No, he/she (indeed) didn't go.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Nem, nem ment.
  Gloss: no not went.3sg
  Translation: No, he/she didn't go.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: De (igen), elment.
  Gloss: but (yes) away-went.3sg
  Translation: Yes, he did leave (contrary to what you are suggesting)
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: De.
  Gloss: but
  Translation: yes
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: De (igen), elment.
  Gloss: but (yes) away-went.3sg
  Translation: Yes, he did leave (contrary to what you are suggesting)
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Minden nap vizet ittam.
  Gloss: every day water-ACC drink-PAST.1SG
  Translation:  I drank water every day.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Minden nap ittam valamennyi vizet.
  Gloss: every day drink-PAST.1SG some-amount water-ACC
  Translation: I drank some water every day.
  Comment: I wouldn't call "valamennyi" an article.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Tedd el a tejet!
  Gloss: put.IMP.2SG away the milk-ACC
  Translation: Put the milk away.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: olvastam könyvet
  Gloss: read.1SG book.ACC
  Translation: I read a book
  Comment: see property definition
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: látok kutyát
  Gloss: see.PRST.1SG.INDEF dog.ACC
  Translation: I see a dog
  Comment: see property definition
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Tegnap kalapot vettem.
  Gloss: yesterday hat-ACC buy.PAST.1SG
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a hat.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Words: Tegnap vettem ne'ha'ny kalapot.
  Gloss: yesterday buy.PAST.1SG hat-ACC
  Translation: yesterday I bought some/a few hats.
  Comment: I wouldn't call "ne'ha'ny" an article.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: egész délután könyvet olvastam
  Gloss: whole afternoon book.ACC read.PST.1SG
  Translation: lit. I read a book whole afternoon I read books all afternoon long (there can be one or many books)
  Comment: see property definition. Bare indefinite count singular nouns in object position may be ambiguous between a singular and a “plural-like” reading (cf. also de Swart and Farkas 2005).
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
  Words: Tegnap kalapot vettem, me'ghozza' hatot.
  Gloss: yesterday hat-ACC buy.PAST.1SG even six-ACC
  Translation: Yesterday I did hat-buying, I even bought six (hats).
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Comment: Unless it is a possessum: Felhi'vta bara'tja't `He called his friend'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Kalapokat vettem.
  Gloss: hat-PL-ACC buy.PAST.1SG
  Translation: I bought hats.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Anna Szabolcsi Forum
  Comment: Unless it is a possessum: Felhi'vta bara'tait. `He phoned his friends'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Anna Szabolcsi Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Anna Szabolcsi Forum