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Icelandic

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: isl
  latlong: 64.119295, -21.857299  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Nokkrir stúdentar sáu þessa mynd.
  Gloss: Some.NOM.M.PL student.NOM.M.PL see.3PL.PST this.ACC.F.SG film.ACC.F.SG
  Translation: Several students saw this film.
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:24).
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   02_Verb Subject No Jim Wood Forum
   03_Verb Object Yes Jim Wood Forum
   04_Object Verb No Jim Wood Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Jim Wood Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Jim Wood Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Jim Wood Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Jim Wood Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Jim Wood Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Jim Wood Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: í hús-inu
  Gloss: in house-the.DAT.SG.N
  Translation: In the house.
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Jim Wood Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Þetta er rauður bolti
  Gloss: This is red.M.SG.NOM bolti.SG.NOM
  Translation: This is a red ball
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Gunnar átti hest gráan
  Gloss: Gunnar have.PST.3SG horse.ACC.M.SG grey.INDF.ACC.M.SG
  Translation: Gunnar had a grey horse.
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:88). Noun Adjective is sometimes used in "relatively formal and bookish" Icelandic (Thráinsson 2007:88).
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: þrjár stelp-ur
  Gloss: three.F.NOM girl-PL.F.NOM
  Translation: Three girls
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Frægu bæk-ur-nar þrjár
  Gloss: Famous book-F.PL.NOM-the.F.PL.NOM three.F.NOM
  Translation: The three famous books
  Comment: From Sigurðsson 2006
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Þessi bók
  Gloss: This.NOM.SG.F book.NOM.SG.F
  Translation: This book
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:11)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Í ritgerð þessari ætla ég að ...
  Gloss: In paper this intend I to ...
  Translation: In this paper, I intend to ...
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:88). Noun Demonstrative is sometimes used in "relatively formal and bookish" Icelandic (Thráinsson 2007:88).
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Jóns hús er rautt
  Gloss: Jon.GEN house.NOM is.3SG red.N.SG.NOM
  Translation: John's house is red
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: bók Jóns
  Gloss: book John.GEN
  Translation: John's book
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: Bókin hans Jóns
  Gloss: book.the.NOM his.GEN Jon.GEN
  Translation: John's book
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
  Words: Bókin Jóns
  Gloss: book.the.NOM Jon.GEN
  Translation: John's book
  Comment: A regional variant (mainly used in the North and North East)
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Jim Wood According to Thráinsson (2007:90) ("The Syntax of Icelandic" CUP), this order is only possible with contrastive focus. Forum
  Words: * mín bók-in
  Gloss: my book-the
  Translation: my book
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:90)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Jim Wood According to Thráinsson (2007:90) ("The Syntax of Icelandic" CUP), this is the normal order in neutral situations. It often, but not always, requires the definite marker on the head noun. Forum
  Words: bók-in mín
  Gloss: book-the my
  Translation: my book
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:90)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: rauð-ur bíl-l
  Gloss: red-SG.M car-SG.M
  Translation: A red car
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Hann er spennt-ur
  Gloss: 3SG.M be.3SG.PRS excited.SG.M
  Translation: He is excited.
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: bíllinn er rauð-ur
  Gloss: car.the.SG.M.NOM be.3SG red-SG.M.NOM
  Translation: The car is red
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: mjög þreytt-ur
  Gloss: very tired-M.SG.NOM
  Translation: Very tired
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Þessi bók
  Gloss: This.NOM.SG.F book.NOM.SG.F
  Translation: This book
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:11)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: Bíllinn er (nógu) stór (*nógu)
  Gloss: car.the.NOM is.3SG enough big.M.SG.NOM enough
  Translation: The car is big enough
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
  Words: Kom Ólafur seint heim
  Gloss: Came Ólafur late home
  Translation: Olaf came home late.
  Comment: This is a marked word order known as Narrative Inversion, commonly occurring after coordinating conjunctions. The above sentence is from Sigurðsson 1990 (In Maling & Zaenen Eds. Modern Icelandic Syntax )
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: Óvinur-inn var hrakinn á brott (af varnarlið-inu)
  Gloss: enemy-the.M.SG.NOM be.PST.1SG driven.M.SG.on away (by defence.force-the.N.SG.DAT)
  Translation: The enemy was driven away by the defence force.
  Comment: Lexical/Semantic case is preserved under passivization, while structural case is not. Example from Thráinsson 2007.
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Jón hefur komið til Parísar / Jón er kominn til Parísar
  Gloss: Jon.NOM has.3SG come.N.SG.ACC to Paris.GEN / Jon.NOM is.3SG come.M.SG.NOM to Paris.GEN
  Translation: John has been to Paris / John has arrived in Paris
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Ég held að hann sé í húsinu
  Gloss: 1SG think.1SG.PRS that 3SG.M is.SBJV in house.the.DAT.SG.N
  Translation: I think that he is in the house
  Comment: Corrected mood in the embedded clause
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Jim Wood Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Ég var að borða morgunmatinn þegar hún kom
  Gloss: 1SG be.1SG.PST to eat breakfast.the.ACC.M.SG when 3SG.F arrive.3SG.PST
  Translation: I was having breakfast when she arrived.
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:13)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Jim Wood Forum
+ Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Dó hann?
  Gloss: Die.3SG.PST 3SG.M
  Translation: Did he die?
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: Ég er búinn að fara þangað
  Gloss: 1SG be.1SG finished.M.SG.NOM to go there.to
  Translation: I´ve already gone there.
  Comment: According to Thráinsson 2007 (pp. 12), has a resultative reading, and is often odd with words like 'never'.
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Jim Wood Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Jim Wood Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Jim Wood Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Jim Wood Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Jim Wood Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Jim Wood Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Jim Wood Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Jim Wood Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Jim Wood Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts Yes Jim Wood Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Jim Wood Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Jim Wood Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Jim Wood Forum
  Words: Þessi rauði hestur
  Gloss: This.NOM.M.SG red.DEF.NOM.M.SG horse.NOM.M.SG
  Translation: This red horse
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:89)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Jim Wood Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Jim Wood Forum
  Words: *Rauði þessi bíll
  Gloss: red.M.SG.NOM this.DEM.M.S.NOM car.NOM
  Translation: This red car
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Jim Wood Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Jim Wood Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Jim Wood Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Jim Wood Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Jim Wood Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Jim Wood Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Jim Wood Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Jim Wood Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Jim Wood Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Jim Wood Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Jim Wood Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Jim Wood Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Jim Wood Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Jim Wood Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Jim Wood Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Jim Wood Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Jim Wood Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes Jim Wood Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Jim Wood Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second Yes Jim Wood Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second Yes Jim Wood Forum