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Italian

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: ita
  latlong: 41.9, 12.483333  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb Yes Chris Collins Forum
   02_Verb Subject Yes Chris Collins Forum
   03_Verb Object Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   04_Object Verb No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
  Words: Io parlo italiano.
  Gloss: 1S speak Italian
  Translation: I speak Italian.
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   06_Subject Object Verb No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   13_Adjective Noun Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   15_Numeral Noun Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   16_Noun Numeral No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Chris Collins Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Adriana Belletti Forum
  Words: Il mio/tuo/suo/nostro/vostro/loro libro
  Gloss: the my/your/his,her,its/our/your/their book
  Translation: my/your/his,her,its/our/your/their book
  Contributor: Adriana Belletti
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Adriana Belletti Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Chris Collins Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Chris Collins Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Andrea Cattaneo (but see comment on the example) Forum
  Words: alto abbastanza (per prendere il libro)
  Gloss: tall enough (to take the book)
  Translation: tall enough (to take the book)
  Comment: in this order there is a feeling of ellipsis. There is no such feeling in the preadjectival position, where abbastanza would correspond to 'rather'(rather tall)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: nella casa ci sono tre sedie
  Gloss: In the house there are three chairs
  Translation: there are three chairs in the house
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * nella casa ci sono sedie tre
  Gloss: in the house there are chairs three
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: I quattro pacchi sono arrivati ieri
  Gloss: The four packages are arrived yesterday
  Translation: The four packages arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * i pacchi quattro sono arrivati ieri
  Gloss: the packages four are arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Le quattro lettere sono già arrivate
  Gloss: The four letters are already arrived
  Translation: The four letters already arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Queste / quelle quattro lettere sono già arrivate
  Gloss: These / those four letters are already arrived
  Translation: These/those four letters already arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Adriana Belletti Forum
  Words: Maria non parla (Cinese)
  Gloss: Maria not talks (Chinese)
  Translation: Maria does not talk (Chinese)
  Contributor: Adriana Belletti
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Andrea Cattaneo Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: questi tre bambini sono miei studenti
  Gloss: these three children are my students
  Translation: these three children are my students
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * questi bambini tre sono miei studenti
  Gloss: these children three are my students
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * bambini tre questi sono miei studenti
  Gloss: children three these are my students
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * bambini questi tre sono miei studenti
  Gloss: children these three are my students
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * tre questi bambini sono miei studenti
  Gloss: three these children are my students
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * tre bambini questi sono miei studenti
  Gloss: three children these are my students
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Adriana Belletti Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Adriana Belletti Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Adriana Belletti Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Adriana Belletti Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho bevuto acqua
  Gloss: have.1S drunk water
  Translation: I drank water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho bevuto acqua
  Gloss: have.1S drunk water
  Translation: I drank water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho bevuto dell'acqua
  Gloss: have.1S drunk of.the water
  Translation: I drank (some) water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho bevuto acqua
  Gloss: have.1S drunk water
  Translation: I drank water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho bevuto dell'acqua
  Gloss: have.1S drunk of.the water
  Translation: I drank (some) water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Ho comprato vino e acqua. * Ho bevuto acqua ma ho lasciato vino
  Gloss: have.1S bought wine and water. Have.1S drunk water but I left wine
  Translation: Intended: I bought wine and water. I drank the water but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Ho comprato vino e acqua. Ho bevuto l' acqua ma ho lasciato il vino
  Gloss: have.1S bought wine and water. Have.1S drunk the water but I left the wine
  Translation: I bought wine and water. I drank the water but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Ho comprato vino e acqua. Ho bevuto l' acqua ma ho lasciato il vino
  Gloss: have.1S bought wine and water. Have.1S drunk the water but I left the wine
  Translation: I bought wine and water. I drank the water but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Ho comprato vino e acqua. * Ho bevuto acqua ma ho lasciato vino
  Gloss: have.1S bought wine and water. Have.1S drunk water but I left wine
  Translation: Intended: I bought wine and water. I drank the water but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Ho comprato vino e acqua. * Ho bevuto acqua ma ho lasciato vino
  Gloss: have.1S bought wine and water. Have.1S drunk water but I left wine
  Translation: Intended: I bought wine and water. I drank the water but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Ho comprato vino e acqua. Ho bevuto l' acqua ma ho lasciato il vino
  Gloss: have.1S bought wine and water. Have.1S drunk the water but I left the wine
  Translation: I bought wine and water. I drank the water but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto un cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho visto un cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho visto un cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto il cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen the dog
  Translation: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho visto il cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen the dog
  Translation: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho visto il cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen the dog
  Translation: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ho visto cane
  Gloss: have.1S seen dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw the dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho visto cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen dogs
  Translation: I saw dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho visto cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen dogs
  Translation: I saw dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto dei cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen of.the dogs
  Translation: I saw (some) dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ho visto cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen dogs
  Translation: I saw dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ho visto dei cani
  Gloss: have.1S seen of.the dogs
  Translation: I saw (some) dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. *Ho visto cani ma non ho visto gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen dogs but not have.1S seen cats
  Translation: Intended: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. Ho visto i cani ma non ho visto i gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen the dogs but not have.1S seen the cats
  Translation: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. Ho visto i cani ma non ho visto i gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen the dogs but not have.1S seen the cats
  Translation: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. *Ho visto cani ma non ho visto gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen dogs but not have.1S seen cats
  Translation: Intended: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. Ho visto i cani ma non ho visto i gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen the dogs but not have.1S seen the cats
  Translation: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: c'erano cani e gatti per strada. *Ho visto cani ma non ho visto gatti
  Gloss: there.were dogs and cats on street. Have.1S seen dogs but not have.1S seen cats
  Translation: Intended: There were dogs and cats on the street. I saw the dogs but I didn't see the cats
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum