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Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: kan
  latlong: 12.971599,77.594563  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: Raama bidd-anu
  Gloss: Rama.NOM fall.Past-3sg.m.
  Translation: Rama fell
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama band-anu
  Gloss: Rama.NOM. come.Past-3sg.m.
  Translation: ‘Rama came.’
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   02_Verb Subject No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
   03_Verb Object No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: Raama Siite-yannu nooD-id-anu
  Gloss: Rama Siita-ACC see-PAST-3sg.m.
  Translation: ‘Rama saw Sita.’
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 05_Subject Verb Object No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: Raama nooD-id-anu (,) Siite-yannu
  Gloss: Rama see-PAST-3sg.m. Sita-ACC
  Comment: No because no postverbal objects in neutral contexts. This order does occur: the post verbal NP is a topic. This order is more natural in perfect contexts (see next example)
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama nooD-idd-aane (,) Siite-yannu
  Gloss: Rama see- be.NONPAST-3sg.m. Sita-ACC
  Translation: ‘Rama has (indeed) seen (Sita).’ ‘Rama has seen Sita, before this.’
  Comment: The postvrela NP is a topic. This order is more natural in perfect contexts (see also preceding example)
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: Raama chappati tin-d-anu
  Gloss: Rama chappati-bread eat-past-3sg.m.
  Translation: Rama ate chappati-bread.’
  Comment: Object not case-marked accusative if inanimate and non-specific indefinite
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama haav-annu kond-anu
  Gloss: Rama snake-acc. kill.past-3sg.m.
  Translation: ‘Rama killed the snake.’
  Comment: The object is definite (zero article), and case marked. Object not case-marked accusative if inanimate and non-specific indefinite
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: hoDey-utt-aane avanu cheND-anna
  Gloss: hit-nonpst-3sg.m. he ball-acc.
  Translation: ‘He hits the ball (well, with great force,etc.)’
  Comment: used in habitual contexts with focus on the verb, or in on-going description (sports commentary)
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: hoDey-utt-aane cheND-anna avanu
  Gloss: hit-nonpst-3sg.m. ball-acc. he
  Translation: ‘He hits the ball (well, with great force,etc.)’
  Comment: used in habitual contexts with focus on the verb
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: chappati(-annu) Raama tin-d-anu
  Gloss: chappati-bread (acc.) Rama eat-past-3sg.m.
  Translation: ‘As for the chappati-bread, Rama ate (it).’
  Comment: implicit list context (setting a bit tricky)
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: chappati tin-utt-aane(,) Raama
  Gloss: chappati-bread eat-nonpast-3sg.m. Rama
  Translation: ‘Chappati-bread, Rama eats.’
  Comment: very natural in modal contexts about what Rama can eat, pandas eat, etc.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: doDDa naayi doDDa makkaLu
  Gloss: big dog big children
  Translation: : ‘a big dog’ ‘the older children’
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 14_Noun Adjective No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naayi doDDa-du (ondu beeku)
  Gloss: dog big- 3n.sg. (a (lit.one) want)
  Translation: ‘(pro want a) BIG dog’ / ‘The dog is big’
  Comment: somewhat tricky setting. ok with focus on the adjective. The agreement on the adj. (NG, fixed 3P) appears also in predicative contexts. A two word utterance is thus ambiguous as shown; the occurrence of a separate predicate disambiguates it. A DP interpretation is not natural in the absence of a numeral, and focus on adj.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: makkaLu doDD-avaru (barlilla)
  Gloss: children big- 3pl. (Neg come)
  Translation: ‘the older children/ the children who are older (did not come)’ ‘The children are old’
  Comment: This is a tricky setting; it could perhaps be yes. A relative clause interpretation may be available in this structure.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: ondu naayi (-annu, etc.)
  Gloss: one dog. NOM (acc. etc)
  Translation: a dog
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naayi ondu (-annu, etc.)
  Gloss: dog one (acc. etc)
  Translation: a dog
  Comment: case marker, if non-nominative and overt, on final element
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: obba huDugi / huDugi obba-Lu
  Gloss: one.human girl / girl one.human- 3f sg.
  Translation: a girl
  Comment: (also Num N). If the Noun is animate, the numeral he N seems to get a special noun-(animate) marker (just like adjectives do). There is no such marker for inanimate nouns.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: ondu huDugi / huDugi ondu
  Gloss:  one girl / girl one
  Translation: a girl
  Comment: It seems that the non-human numeral can be used for 'girl' in contexts similar to those that allow the use of 'it' as a pronoun for 'child' in English. Further research is necessary fo determine the exact contexts.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: ii/ aa naayi
  Gloss: prox./ distal dog
  Translation: this dog/ that dog
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Comment: simply not a possible order
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   19_Possessor Noun Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: doDDa mane cikka mane
  Gloss: ‘a big house; a small house’
  Comment: There is no attributive adjective agreement
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: mane doDDa-du // mane doDDa-d-aagi ide
  Gloss: house big-3n.sg. // house big-3n.sg.-AAGI be pres.3n.sg.
  Translation: The house is big; the house is (as) big
  Comment: A bit tricky to set. See also see properties (14, 20, 22): Adj is marked for agreement (NG, fixed 3P) in predicative contexts in copular constructions with non overt copula [ signifying individual level predication]. This agreement is also a nominalizer (derives gerunds). Copular constructions with overt copula signify stage level predication (not demonstrated here: demonstrable for predicates be true, be correct), and nominalized (agreeing) adjective is marked with –aagi, lit. ‘having been/ become.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naanu niiru kuDiyuttiini
  Gloss: I water drink.nonpst.agr
  Translation: I drink water
  Comment: absence of accusative case for indefinites, but not for definites. Thus couting as "article" according to the property definition.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Comment: *I drank water.Gen. A quantifier "svalpa" a little would be used. Some is usually taken to be 'kelavu' and restricted to count Ns. a
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: *naanu niiru kuDiyuttiini
  Gloss: I water drink
  Translation: intended: I drank the water.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naanu niir-annu kuDide
  Gloss: I water-acc drink.pst.agr
  Translation: I drank the water
  Comment: acc is obligatory.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naanu baaLehaNNu tinde
  Gloss: I banana.fruit eat.pst.agr
  Translation: I ate a banana
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naanu pustaka ooduttiini
  Gloss: I book.sg. read.nonpst.agr
  Translation: 'I read books' (habitually, etc.)'
  Comment: There is a restriction on this possibility, perhaps about human Ns, (see
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: *avaLu magu nooDikoLLuttaaLe
  Gloss: she child looks.after
  Translation: * intended: she looks after children. This can only mean: She looks after a specific/definite child.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: avaLu aane /kudure nooDikoLLuttaaLe
  Gloss: She elephant/horse looks.after.
  Translation: She looks after elephants/horses
  Comment: The plural reading is available for non-human animates (like elephant or horse), but not for human (child).
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Amrit Amritavalli Not in past tense/perfective (which is the given elicitation context). In generic sentences, some singular human count nouns can be bare with a definite meaning. only. Forum
  Words: naanu aa baaLehaNNu tinde
  Gloss: I that banana eat.pst.agr
  Translation: I ate that banana
  Comment: A demonstrative normally combines with accusative Case. But just in the case of the presence of a demonstratives AND a well defined phonological environment at the right edge of the noun (phonologically similar to the case form), the accusative can drop. This is not possible if the demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: avaLu magu nooDikoLLuttaaLe
  Gloss: she child look after
  Translation: she looks after a specific/ definite child.
  Comment: In generic/habitual sentences, a defin sing human count noun can be bare. (this context does not fall under the elicitation context, so it does not warrant a yes value).
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naanu makkaLu nooDide
  Gloss: I children see.pst.agr
  Translation: I saw children
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Amrit Amritavalli Forum
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Amrit Amritavalli Forum
  Words: naanu makkaL-annu nooDide
  Gloss: I children-ACC see.pst.agr
  Translation: I saw the children
  Comment: I saw the children
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Amrit Amritavalli Forum