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Kiyaka

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: yaf
  latlong: -6.368097,17.396851  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   02_Verb Subject Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   03_Verb Object Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   04_Object Verb Yes Lukowa Kidima animate objects must agree with the verb, and can follow or precede the verb. Non agreeing objects must follow the verb in neutral contexts. Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: mbwá kopha búdídídyá
  Gloss: 1.dog cup broke.PST.3O
  Translation: The dog broke the cup
  Comment: Fine in 'what happened 'what's new" neutral context. (verbal morphology: bul.ili.dya.) All 6 orders are possible for this sentence.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   07_Verb Subject Object Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: hátá dyá mbútà
  Gloss: village AGR.A big
  Translation: a big village
  Comment: 'house of big(ness)' a is the associate marker. See next example for the use of ya mbuta as predicate.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
  Words: hatá dyà mbútà
  Gloss: village (BE) AGR.A big
  Translation: the village is big.
  Comment: Extra example for predicate use. Different tones from attributive As. (lit: the house is of big(ness)
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   15_Numeral Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   16_Noun Numeral Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: bááná bá.búkhété búkhété túwééné
  Gloss: 2child 2.A. beautiful beautiful 1PL.2Osee.PST
  Translation: We saw very beatiful children. (in answer to who did you see, which has a fronted wh-word))
  Comment: For reduplication, it is difficult to determine if the exponent of degree precedes the base or follows it. (RED(degree) [A ] or A- RED(degree). The following example with kati (really) shows Degree precedes A.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
  Words: bááná bá kátí búkhété túwééné
  Gloss: 2.child 2.A really 2.beautiful 1PL.2O saw
  Translation: We saw really beautiful children. (in answer to who did you see, which has a fronted wh-word))
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Lukowa Kidima Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: mudyaámbu yandí wuúsidi, beto thwéléko
  Gloss: because he come (= w.us.idi) , 1PL.go(=ele).NEG
  Translation: Because he came, we didn't go
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: bifúndá bíyá bitúdìdì
  Gloss: 8.package 8.four 8S.tul.idi (arrive.RECPST)
  Translation: Four packages arrived
  Comment: Different form from definite N Num; Recent past must be used here, perfect is not possible.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: bifúndá byá bíyá bitúdídí
  Gloss: 8.package 8.A 8.four 8SA.tul.ili (=arrive.PERF)
  Translation: The four packages have arrived
  Comment: byá (agr.a) (a=associative marker) must be present in definite N Num (but is absent in Noun Numeral (Indef)). PERFECT is natural in this context, (I see: the four packages have arrived). This is suggestive of the use of perfect as evidential.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative No Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: bifúndá byeéno byá bíyá bitúdídí
  Gloss: 8.packages 8.previously.mentioned 8.A 8.four 8.arrive.idi
  Translation: the four packages in question have arrived
  Comment: NB: depends on how to classify (AGR-eeno) ' in question, previously mentioned. (Deictic DEM this/that is excluded here). bima byeéno : the things we talked about vs. bima byééno: your things. (Note the difference in tonal patterns on -eeno)..
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking Yes Lukowa Kidima Definite must contains the associate marker (see N209) Forum
  Comment: Associate must be present (N ASSOC Num). See example under Num N (definite).
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Lukowa Kidima Forum
+ Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: yayá ka ngángá ko
  Gloss: brother NEG(=ka) H(BE) doctor NEG(=ko)
  Translation: My brother is not a doctor
  Comment: (H tone =be). ka...ko (=Neg).
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
+ Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
  Words: ka yáyá ko n'nganga
  Gloss: NEG brother NEG 1. doctor
  Translation: my brother is not the doctor
  Comment: n' : syllabic nasal, extra noun class morpheme must appear in this particular context.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Lukowa Kidima This depends on how to classify (AGR-eeno) ' in question, previously mentioned'. If this is a demonstrative, this property would be 'yes'. However, since there seems to be no way to use a demonstrative with "tell me about these two paintings/children" with a deictic demonstrative, it seems these cannot combine with numeral N. This is what motivated the 'no' value. Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Lukowa Kidima Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Lukowa Kidima but focus constituents must immediately precede the verbal complex (including subject agreement markers).. Forum