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Kom

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: bkm
  latlong: 6.345352,10.394712  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
   02_Verb Subject No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: mà nyvI múu
  Gloss: I drink water
  Translation: I drank water
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   04_Object Verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: Baba lèng wáyn
  Gloss: Baba beat child
  Translation: Baba has beaten the child
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
  Words: wáyndà b'`I chuf no^ ncha?
  Gloss: child not pick even straw
  Translation: A child has not eaten anyhting
  Comment: to verify: scope of negation w.r.t. the subject
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   06_Subject Object Verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: à lèng wáyn Ngóng
  Gloss: FOC beat child Ngong
  Translation: It is the child that has beaten Ngong.
  Comment: Not neutral: focus on child.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   08_Verb Object Subject No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: no^ ncha? wáyndà bˆI chuf
  Gloss: even straw child not pick
  Translation: No child has eaten anyhting
  Comment: I , barreded i. This order is only possible in negative sentences. The preposed object can also follow the verb, as in the next examples
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   10_Object Verb Subject No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: mà tí se? á gve^yn
  Gloss: I past go to farm
  Translation: I went to the farm
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: Eg akás a fÍ
  Gloss: an old AGR.7 hoe
  Translation: an old hoe
  Comment: (to add: class for hoe. gloss for Eg). akas (class 7) means "zink". In this context it has come to mean an old weapon, any old iron object. Akan controls the agreement morpheme preceding the noun.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: afó a jófI-nÍ á
  Gloss: 7.thing agr.7 (be)good.A agr.7
  Translation: a good thing
  Comment: A verbal adjective (ni turns the verb into an Adjective). To check: is this agreement pattern typical of postnominal relative clauses?
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   15_Numeral Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: ghelI ghI tál
  Gloss: 2.people AGR.2 three
  Translation: Three people
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: ndo ÀngtSang
  Gloss: house ÀngtSang
  Translation: ÀngtSang's house
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: fItám fem fI'
  Gloss: 19.guava my 19.agr
  Translation: my guava
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: Wúl `I jòfInI
  Gloss:  cl1.person agr1 good
  Translation: a good person
  Comment: I is barred i... Each noun class has a particular agreement morpheme.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
  Words: Ì jòfÍnÍ
  Gloss: agr-good
  Translation: the good (one)
  Comment: Adjectives can be used pronominally (with ellipisis of the N), with the adjective carrying class agreement.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: afol a n- jof- a
  Gloss: cap AGR n-nice-a
  Translation: The cap is nice
  Comment: Nice has verbal morphology (n and a), and does not agree with the subject. be good is "sI- jòf' 'sI be" to be bad, but bI: 'bad', sI musI 'to get old, but mu"old".
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: nó` wul I mu
  Gloss: very cl.1.person agr.1 old
  Translation: A very old person
  Comment: Ihe degree in Kom is expressed by the intensifier “no^”, which will precede the N-A string. No is also used as even, or as a negative polarity item. (nó` fo “nothing”). See the examples under the OSV property
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Richard Kwamong Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Richard Kwamong Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: ghe m- bé [na [IlvÍ kfeyn meyn ]]
  Gloss: they are saying [that [time reach already]]
  Translation: they are saying [that [time reach already]]
  Comment: The adverb “ meyn” follows the verb but when it appears after a tense morpheme it precedes the verb. ˆlvÍ tí meyn kfeyn “time reached” Time past asp reach
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: mà ko [bòmta [ bò ngweyn nghí wi á ndo]]
  Gloss: I go.up because father his is not prep. house
  Translation: I went up because his father is not in
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: Ifwo ateyn Ibwo ALSO: Ifwo Ibwo naweyn
  Gloss: things def two ALSO: things two def
  Translation: the (se) two things
  Comment: Kom has two definite article one that comes before the numeral ‘ateyn”-“the” and one that comes after the numeral “naweyn’ “the”
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: bvI seynsI sI bo
  Gloss: good these arg two
  Translation: These two goats
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Richard Kwamong Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: ma bÍ ndù
  Gloss: I NEG go
  Translation: I have not gone
  Comment:  ‘bI' is also an adverb meaning still. When the negation has a sense of no longer ‘bI co-occurs with ‘wí'.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: mÍ n-gvi wi
  Gloss: I n- come not
  Translation: I wont come
  Comment: Comment –wi is used for the present and future. ‘ Ka’ for imperative and ‘bI' for the past
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: mIvIl In- jòfInI meyn
  Gloss: oil agr good this
  Translation: this good oil
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: wul I mo weyn
  Gloss: person agr.1 this
  Translation: This one person
  Comment: Only numbers up to five agree.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: Ifwo weyn Ì-kfaè
  Gloss: things these four
  Translation: These four things
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: Jòyn n-kó`ng ndòng a ?
  Gloss: John prog- love potato foc/Q.
  Translation: Does John love potato?
  Comment: The interrogative marker in Kom is the focus marker which can occur at the beginning or end of a word.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Richard Kwamong Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Richard Kwamong Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Richard Kwamong Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Richard Kwamong Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Richard Kwamong Forum
  Words: mà yuyn mIlú`?
  Gloss: I buy beer
  Translation: I ve bought beer
  Comment: (? = glottal stop). The tense is marked by a change of verb tone in this context.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
  Words: afvéf a tàngsI sá`ny¯ a m(á ) Íwe
  Gloss: wind agr blow sand loc. my terrace
  Translation: the wind blew sand on my terrace
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
  Words: Jòn bIs nyvI mˆlI`k a tsï``
  Gloss: John early drink milk loc. tea
  Translation: John drank tea for breakfast
  Comment: ‘Joyn , mˆlˆ^k and tsˆ^’ are loan adapted words from John, tea and milk. Actually the word breakfast is not in the Kom tradition. There is but dinner which points to a feast.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Richard Kwamong Forum