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Korean

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: kor
  latlong: 37.55,126.02  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Toli-ka ttena-ss-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-NOM leave-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli left.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   02_Verb Subject No Chung-hye Han Forum
   03_Verb Object No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Toli-ka mantwu-lul mek-ess-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-NOM dumpling-ACC eat-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli ate a/the dumpling.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   05_Subject Verb Object No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Toli-ka mantwu-lul mek-ess-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-NOM dumpling-ACC eat-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli ate a/the dumpling.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   07_Verb Subject Object No Chung-hye Han Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Mantwu-lul Toli-ka mek-ess-ta.
  Gloss: dumpling-ACC Toli-NOM eat-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli ate a/the dumpling.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   10_Object Verb Subject No Chung-hye Han Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Toli-nun hankwuk-eyse wa-ss-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-TOP Korea-from come-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli came from Korea.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: ppalka-n kong
  Gloss: red-REL ball
  Translation: a/the red ball
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   14_Noun Adjective No Chung-hye Han Forum
   15_Numeral Noun Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: yenphil cey calwu
  Gloss: pencil three CLF
  Translation: three pencils
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: i chayk
  Gloss: this book
  Translation: this book
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Toli-uy chayk
  Gloss: Toli-GEN book
  Translation: Toli's book
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   20_Noun Possessor No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: na-uy cip
  Gloss: 1SG-GEN house
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Chung-hye Han Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Chung-hye Han Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: acwu ku-n
  Gloss: very big-REL
  Translation: very big
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Chung-hye Han Forum
  Contributor: Chris Collins
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Chung-hye Han Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Yuli-nun Toli-ka cip-ey ka-ss-tako malha-yess-ta.
  Gloss: Yuli-TOP Toli-NOM house-to go-PST-COMP say-PST-DECL
  Translation: Yuli said that Toli went home.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: Pilok swuhak-i silh-telato soholhiha-ci mal-ala.
  Gloss: although math-NOM dislike-although ignore-CONN not-IMP
  Translation: Although you don't like math, don't ignore it.
  Comment: The example was originally provided by Chung-hye Han. Shin-Sook Kim comments: In Han’s example above, the adverb pilok can be omitted but the clause-final adverbial subordinator -telato ‘although’ is obligatory, showing that the clause-final –telato, not the clause-initial pilok, is the real adverbial subordinator here.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Toli-nun wuntong-ul mayil ha-ki ttaymwuney kenkangha-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-TOP exercise-ACC everyday do-NMLZ because healthy-DECL
  Translation: Toli is healthy because he exercises everyday.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Extra Examples Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: twusalam wass.e.yo
  Gloss: two person came. e. formal
  Translation: Two people came
  Comment: 두사람 왔어요
  Contributor: Grace Lee
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: congi twu.cang iss.e.yo
  Gloss: Paper two.NCL exist.e. formal
  Translation: There are two sheets of paper
  Comment: 종이 두장 있어요
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Grace Lee Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Grace Lee Forum
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative YES Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: (ku) ney kwen-uy chayk-un ecey tochakha-ess-ta
  Gloss: that four CLF-GEN book-TOP yesterday arrive-PST-DECL
  Translation: The four books arrived yesterday
  Comment: A demonstrative can optionally appear in this sentence. The sentence must be understood as the continuation of the following context: Aba sent us four books last week ("four books" is new information). The example (as well as the property value) has been provided by Shin-Sook Kim.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Grace Lee Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Grace Lee Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Grace Lee Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Grace Lee Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Grace Lee Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Chelswu-ka an nolayha-yess-ta.
  Gloss: Chelswu-NOM NEG sing-PST-DECL
  Translation: Chelsswu did not sing.
  Comment: This property applies to short negation in Korean.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Chelswu-ka nolayha-ci anh-ass-ta.
  Gloss: Chelswu-NOM sing-CONN NEG-PST-DECL
  Translation: Chelswu did not sing.
  Comment: This property applies to long negation.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: Chelswu-ka nolayha-ci anh-ass-ta.
  Gloss: Chelswu-NOM sing-CONN NEG-PST-DECL
  Translation: Chelswu did not sing.
  Comment: This property applies to long negation in Korean. An alternative view is that long negation is a particle cliticized to 'ha'.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: ce twukkewu-n chayk
  Gloss: that thick-REL book
  Translation: that thick book
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Chung-hye Han Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun Yes Chung-hye Han Forum
  Words: alumta-wun ce yeca
  Gloss: beautiful-REL that woman
  Translation: that beautiful woman
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
  Words: ppalka-n i kong
  Gloss: red-REL this ball
  Translation: this red ball
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Hyo Shin Forum
  Words: ce se-kwon-ui chayk
  Gloss: those three-CLF-GEN book
  Translation: those three books
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Hyo Shin Forum
  Words: ce chayk se-kwon
  Gloss: those book three-CLF
  Translation: those three books
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Hyo Shin Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Hyo Shin Forum
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun Yes Hyo Shin Forum
  Words: se-kwon-ui ce chayk
  Gloss: three-CLF-GEN those book
  Translation: those three books
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Hyo Shin Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Grace Lee Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: pay kophu.ni?
  Gloss: Hungry.Q?
  Translation: Are you hungry?
  Comment: 배고프니?
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Grace Lee Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: pay kopha?
  Gloss: Hungry?
  Translation: Are you hungry?
  Comment: 배고파?
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Grace Lee Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Grace Lee Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Grace Lee Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: pay kophu.ni? A: ney
  Gloss: Q: Hungry.Q? A: Yes
  Translation: Q: Are you hungry? A: Yes
  Comment: Q: 배고프니? A: 네
  Contributor: Grace Lee
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: pap mek.ess.e? A: mek.ess.e
  Gloss: Q: food ate(past)? A: ate(past).
  Translation: Q: Did you eat? A: I ate.
  Comment: Q: 밥 먹었어? A: 먹었어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
+ Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: yoli halswu iss.e? A: halswuiss.e
  Gloss: Q: Cooking do.e A: Do.e
  Translation: Q: Can you cook? A: I can
  Comment: Q: 요리 할수 있어? A: 할수 있어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
+ Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: mwulcwulswuiss.e? A: cwulswuiss.e
  Gloss: Q: Water give.e A: Give.e
  Translation: Q: Can you give me water? A: I can give.
  Comment: Q: 물 줄수 있어? A: 줄수 있어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: ilpon.ey ka.ss.e? A: ka.ss.e
  Gloss: Q: Japan-at went.past.e? A: went.past.e
  Translation: Q: Did you go to Japan? A: Yes.
  Comment: Q: 일본에 갔어? A: 갔어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Grace Lee Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: nwuka umsik mek.ko iss.e? A: mek.ko iss.e
  Gloss: Q: Who food eat be.e? A: eat be.e
  Translation: Q: Is someone eating food? A: Yes
  Comment: Q: 누가 음식 먹고있어? A: 먹고있어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Grace Lee Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: mikwukmal halswu iss.e? A: ani
  Gloss: Q: English-speak can.e? A: No
  Translation: Q: Can you speak English? A: No
  Comment: Q: 미국말 할수있어? A:아니
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Grace Lee Forum
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Grace Lee Forum
  Words: Q: pap sa.ss.e? A: an sa.ss.e
  Gloss: Q: Food bought.past.e? A: NEG bought.past.e
  Translation: Q: Did you buy food? A: I didn’t buy it.
  Comment: Q: 밥 샀어? A: 안 샀어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: A: Mina-ka Seoul-ey an ka-ss-ni? B: ney (an ka-ss-eyo)
  Gloss: A: Mina-NOM Seoul-to NEG go-PST-Q B: yes (NEG go-PST-DECL)
  Translation: A: Did Mina not go to Seoul? B: Yes (she didn't)
  Comment: Only "Yes" (truth-based) is possible here.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Grace Lee Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Grace Lee Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Grace Lee Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Chung-hye Han Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Chung-hye Han Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: Mina-nun mayil mwul-ul masi-n-ta
  Gloss: Mina-TOP every.day water-ACC drink-PRS-DECL
  Translation: Mina drinks water every day.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: wuyu-lul nayngcangko-ey neh-ela!
  Gloss: milk-ACC fridge-in put-IMP
  Translation: Put the milk in the fridge!
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: na-nun chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta
  Gloss: I-TOP book-ACC read-PST-DECL
  Translation: I read a book.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: na-nun chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta
  Gloss: I-TOP book-ACC read-PST-DECL
  Translation: I read a book / some books. (can mean either one or more than one book)
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: nayngcangko-ey pay twu kay-wa sakwa han kay-ka iss-ess-ta. Mina-nun sakwa-lul kkenay-ss-ta.
  Gloss: fridge-in pear two CLF-and apple one CLF-NOM exist-PST-DECL. Mina-TOP apple-ACC take.out-PST-DECL
  Translation: There were two pears and an apple in the fridge. Mina took the apple out.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: na-nun chayk-ul ilk-ess-ta
  Gloss: I-TOP book-ACC read-PST-DECL
  Translation: I read books. (can also mean: I read a book.)
  Comment: A bare count noun is compatible to both a singular and a plural interpretation.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: na-nun namhaksayng sey myeng-kwa yehaksayng twu myeng-ul manna-ss-ta. na-nun yehaksayng-man phathi-ey chotayha-ess-ta.
  Gloss: I-TOP boy.student three CLF-and girl.student two CLF-ACC meet-PST-DECL I-TOP girl.student-only party-to invite-PST-DECL
  Translation: I met three boy students and two girl students. I invited only the girl students to the party.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
  Words: Mina-nun tal-ul po-ass-ta
  Gloss: Mina-TOP moon-ACC look.at-PST-DECL
  Translation: Mina looked at the moon.
  Contributor: Shin-Sook Kim
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Shin-Sook Kim Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Shin-Sook Kim Forum