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Kurdish (Sorani)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: kur
  latlong: 35.995785,45.900879  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
  Words: Hiwa rošt-Ø
  Gloss: Hiwa go.PST-3SG
  Translation: Hiwa went.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
  Words: bra-ka-t na-chu bo Paris? ba, chu
  Gloss: brother-DEF-2SG NEG-went to Paris? yes, went.he
  Translation: Did yor brother not go to Paris? Yes, He did.
  Comment: Ye
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   02_Verb Subject No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   03_Verb Object No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: Hana sew a-xuw-at
  Gloss: Hana apple IPFV-eat-3SG
  Translation: Hana eats (is eating) an apple.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   05_Subject Verb Object No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: Hana sew a-xuw-at
  Gloss: Hana apple IPFV-eat-3SG
  Translation: Hana sew a-xuw-at
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   07_Verb Subject Object No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: (min) chu-m bo qutabxane
  Gloss: (I) go.PST-1SG to school
  Translation: I went to school.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: kteb-ek-i sawz
  Gloss: book-INDF-EZ green
  Translation: A green book
  Comment: EZ stands for Ezafe, a morpheme serving the function of linking an N(P) to its dependen(s)
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   15_Numeral Noun Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   16_Noun Numeral No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: Hana zor zirak-a
  Gloss: Hana very smart-be.3SG
  Translation: Hana is very smart.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: min a-zan-im ka Hana zirak-a
  Gloss: I IPFV-know-1SG that Hana smart-be.3SG
  Translation: I know that Hana is smart.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: agarchi Hiwa aqil-a, balam (pro) hamisha ba-pala-(y)a
  Gloss: although Hiwa intelligent-be.3SG, but (pro) always with-haste-be.3SG
  Translation: Although Hiwa is intelligent, he is always impulsive.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
  Words: aw kteb-a astur-a
  Gloss: that book-DEF thick-DEF
  Translation: That thick book
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: aw du kteb-a a-xwen-m-awa
  Gloss: that two book-DEF IND-read-1SG-PROG
  Translation: I am reading those two books
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: (aya) sarok-komar zu chak abetawa?
  Gloss: (Q) head-republic soon well be.3SG
  Translation: will the president recover soon?
  Comment: The advent of (aya) into kurdish is the under the direct influence of Persian. This structure is still considered highly marked and bookish (in both languages). in the nuetral contect, however, yes/no questions are created using a declrative clause with a rising intonation in Kurdish (and in Persina).
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: bra-ka=t qawa a-xwa-t?
  Gloss: brother-DEF=2SG coffee IND-drink-3SG
  Translation: Does your brother drink coffee?
  Comment: with rising intonation
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Yadgar Karimi Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Yadgar Karimi Forum
  Words: dwene na-rosht-m
  Gloss: yesterday NEG-went-1SG
  Translation: I did not go yesterday.
  Comment: Kurdish negative particle, used either as a negative answer or as clausal negation is "na:", however, in the past-tense clauses it is changed into "na".
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes Yadgar Karimi Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Yadgar Karimi Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Yadgar Karimi Forum