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Kusaal

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: kus
  latlong: 11.054112,-0.238539  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. Asibi sa di-ya ii. Asibi sa di sous iii. Asibi sa di mui sous
  Gloss: i. Asibi PRT eat-UCC.marker ii. Asibi PRT eat yesterday iii. Asibi PRT eat rice yesterday
  Translation: i. ‘Asibi has eaten yesterday’ ii. ‘Asibi ate yesterday’ iii. ‘Asibi ate rice yesterday'
  Comment: Asibi is a proper noun. The /-ya/ morpheme occurs in unaccusaive positions after the verb. It does not surface anytime a noun or an adverb follows the verb.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 02_Verb Subject No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: * sa kul nidib si'a
  Gloss: PRT go-home.perf people some
  Translation:  ‘some people went home yesterday’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: biig la sa di diib la
  Gloss: child Def PRT eat.perf food Def
  Translation: ‘the child ate the food yesterday.’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 04_Object Verb No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *biig la diib la sa di
  Gloss: child Def food Def PRT eat.perf
  Translation: ‘the child ate the food yesterday.’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: pυa la da’ laad la
  Gloss: woman Def buy.perf items Def
  Translation: ‘the woman bought the items’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *pυa la laad la da’
  Gloss: woman Def item Def buy.perf
  Translation: ‘the woman bought the items’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   07_Verb Subject Object No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *di diib la Asibi sous
  Gloss:  eat.perf food Def Asibi yesterday
  Translation: ‘Asibi ate the food yesterday’
  Comment: All particles used for marking time example: sa ‘yesterday’ and negation example: bυ ‘not’ must occur before the main verb, negation etc occur before the verb. The VOS is ungrammatical in all circumstances.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. *laad la pυa la da’ ii. laad la kà pυa la da’
  Gloss: i. things Def woman Def buy.perf ii. things DEF FOC woman DEF buy
  Translation: i. ‘the woman bought the items’ ii. ‘it is the things that the woman bought’ (as against any other things)
  Comment: The contrastive focus particle, kà, can be introduced after the fronted object corresponding to a contrastive focus interpretation of the fronted object.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *laad la da’ pυa la
  Gloss: things Def buy.perf woman Def
  Translation: *‘the things bought the woman’
  Comment: The language does not have overt marking for the nominative and accusative forms. Passivization is also impossible. The argument role of an NP defines its role in a sentence. Even though the example in this column is syntactically viable, it is semantically unacceptable as things cannot be buyers.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. Asibi nɛ Adoluba bɛ dᴐᴐg la ni ii. ᴐ nᴐk sυυg nwa ni’im la
  Gloss: i. Asibi CONJ Adoluba to-be room DEF in ii. 3sg take knife cut meat DEF
  Translation: i. ‘Asibi is with Adoluba in the room’ ‘Asibi and Adoluba are in the room’ ii. ‘s/he cut the meat with the knife’
  Comment: Kusaal does not have prepositions. For instance, the conjunction ne/nɛ is used in comitatives (i) and the verb nᴐk ‘take’ is used in instrumental SVCs as in (ii).
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: biig la bɛ dᴐᴐg la ni
  Gloss: child.NC Def to-be room.NC Def eye
  Translation: ‘the child is in the room'
  Comment: Kusaal uses body parts as postposition: zug “head…on’ pug “stomach…inside’ etc
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. Ghana biig la ii. *Fiin biig la
  Gloss: i. Ghana child.NC DEF ii. small child Def
  Translation: i. 'The Ghanian child.' ii. 'The small child.'
  Comment: This order is only possible when we have nationality. All other adjectives are postnominal.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: bi.fiin la
  Gloss: child.small.NC Def
  Translation: ‘the little child’
  Comment: "Some nouns lose their endings when they come into contact with adjectives. bυυg ‘goat’ bυwᴐk ‘tall goat’, bυtita’ar ‘big goat’. Others such as yir ‘house’ occurs in full with the adjective yir tita’ar la house big Def ‘the big house’ "
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   15_Numeral Noun No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   16_Noun Numeral Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *nwa dau
  Gloss:  DEM man.NC
  Translation:  ‘this man’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. dau nwa ii. dap bama iii. dau kanna iv. dap banna
  Gloss: i. man.NC DEM ii. man.pl.NC DEM iii. man.NC DEM iv. man.pl.NC DEM
  Translation: i. 'this men' ii. 'these men' iii. 'that men' iv. 'those men'
  Comment: Looking at the singular and plural distal demonstrative: kanna ‘that’ and banna ‘those’, the difference is by the use of the prefixes /b-/ and /k-/ respectively.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: biis la ba
  Gloss:  children DEF father
  Translation:  ‘the children’s father’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 20_Noun Possessor No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: * ba biis la
  Gloss:  father children DEF
  Translation:  ‘the children’s father’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. m ma ii. ᴐ bυυg iii. ti bυυs
  Gloss: i. 1 Pron. Poss mother ii. 3sg goat.NC iii. 2pl goat.NC
  Translation: i. ‘my mother’ ii. 'his goat' iii. 'our goat'
  Comment: "Pronominal possessors are identical to subject pronouns in Kusaal. Example : m/n ‘I’ fυ ‘you-2Sg’ ᴐ ‘3Sg- s/he’ ti ‘1pl-we’ ya ‘2pl.you’ ba 3pl-they "
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *ma m
  Gloss:  mother my
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. Yi tita’ar la ii. yiya tita’ada la
  Gloss: i. house.NC big.ADJ Def ii. house.pl.NC big.pl. ADJ Def
  Translation: i. 'the big house' ii. 'the big houses'
  Comment: "Attributive adjectives agree in number with the noun they modify. The singular noun yir’house’ becomes ‘yi’. The plural of the noun yir ‘house’ is yiya/ya’houses’. In cases where we have the plural, the whole NP yiya ‘houses’ or the plural suffix instead of the stem is used. Yiya tita’ada ‘hig houses’ ya tita’ada ‘big houses’ * yi tita’ada ‘big houses’ This is the only instance where we see the suffix plural morpheme coocuring with the adjective. We therefore consi
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: i. Yir la ɛ tita’ada ii. Ya la ɛ tita’da
  Gloss: i. house.NC Def is big ii. House.pl.NC DEF are big.pl.ADJ
  Translation: i. ‘the house is big’ ii. 'the houses are big'
  Comment: Predicative adjectives also agree in number with the noun they modify.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *ata yiya
  Gloss: three house.NC(PL)
  Translation: 'three houses'
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: bgana ata
  Gloss: book.NC(PL) three
  Translation: ‘three books’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *bama ayi dap
  Gloss:  these two man.pl.NC
  Translation: 'the two men'
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: dap ayi bama
  Gloss: man.pl.NC two these
  Translation: 'these two men'
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *ayi bama dap
  Gloss:  two these man.pl.NC
  Translation: 'these two men'
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: ba kuos.id daam daar wusa
  Gloss:  3pl sell.imperf beer day every
  Translation: They sell beer every day
  Comment: The-id suffix on the verb expresses the habitual here, but more work is needed to gloss it with confidence.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: Mbelimm ɛ , tisi-m kuom la, n na tis fu daam la
  Gloss: Please, give-1Sg.ACC water DEF, 1sg FUT give 2sg beer DEF
  Translation: Please pass me the water; I will pass you the beer.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: ?Mbelimmɛ, tisim kuom, n na tis fu daam
  Gloss: please give-me water, 1sg FUT give 2sg beer
  Translation: Please pass me water, I will pass you beer
  Comment: The data is acceptable under an indefinite interpretation
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: Sous, dau la sa da ͛ gban, amaa ᴐ nan bu karim li
  Gloss: esterday man DEF PRT buy book, but he has not read it yet
  Translation: ͚ the man bought a book yesterday but he has not read it yet
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: M sa bυᴐl dap ayi ne pυa
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call men two and woman
  Translation: I called two men and a woman
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: ᴐ sa pia tis dap la maa
  Gloss: 3Sg PRT speak give man.pl.NC DEF only
  Translation: I spoke to the men
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: Sous, dau la sa da’ gbana
  Gloss: yesterday, man.NC DEF PRT buy book
  Translation: The man bought books yesterday.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: M sa nyɛ dap ayi ne pυa
  Gloss: 1sg PRT see men two and woman
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: *n sa bυᴐl dap
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call men
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: Asibi sa gᴐt nintaŋ la
  Gloss: Asibi PRT observed sun DEF
  Translation: Asibi saw the sun yesterday.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: Adoluba sa nyɛ Asibi.nama
  Gloss: Adoluba PRT see Asibi.pl
  Translation: Adoluba saw Asibi
  Comment: The use of the article here is derogatory.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w08c Proper names in object position can have an article Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: N sa bᴐᴐl Asibi
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call Asibi
  Translation: I called Asibi yesterday
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *N sa bᴐᴐl la Asibi
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call DEF Asibi
  Translation: I called Asibi yesterday
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ w09b Order PN-Art in object position Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: N sa bᴐᴐl Asibi la
  Gloss: 1sg PRT call Asibi DEF
  Translation: I called Asibi yesterday
  Comment: This is possible but with a derogatory meaning
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
+ w11a Order A--PN in object position No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: *n sa nyɛ pυanyaŋ la Asibi
  Gloss: 1sg PRT see woman-old DEF Asibi
  Translation: I saw Asibi, the old lady
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
+ w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
  Words: N sa nyɛ Asibi pυanyaŋ la
  Gloss: 1sg PRT see Asibi woman-old DEF
  Translation: I saw Asibi, the old lady
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari Forum