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Lango

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: laj
  latlong: 1.673804,32.847748  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Arwa Rangwala Noonan, Michael. 1992. A Grammar of Lango., Mouton de Gruyter. Forum
  Words: lócə̀ə̀ àɔ́lɔ̂
  Gloss: man 3S.cough.PROG
  Translation: the man is coughing (Noonan 1992: 126 ex 2b.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   02_Verb Subject No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: àcámò dɛ̀k
  Gloss: 1SG.eat.PRF stew
  Translation: I ate stew (Noonan 1992: 119 ex 1b.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   04_Object Verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: án àcámò dɛ̀k
  Gloss: I 1SG.eat.PRF stew
  Translation: I ate stew (Noonan 1992: 119 ex 1a.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   06_Subject Object Verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: lócə̀ òwòtò tú bòt dákô
  Gloss: man 3S.walk.PRF toward to woman
  Translation: the man walked toward the woman (Noonan 1992: 171 ex 3.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: gwôkk à bɛ̀r
  Gloss: dog ATT good.SG
  Translation: the good dog (Noonan 1992: 155 ex 1a.)
  Comment: the attributive particle “à” is used with attributive adjectives
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   15_Numeral Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: gúlú àdɛ̂k òtɔ̀ɔ̀
  Gloss: pot three 3S.die.PRF
  Translation: three pots broke (Noonan 1992: 168 ex 6.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: gwókkɪ̀
  Gloss: dog-this
  Translation: this dog (Noonan 1992: 155 ex 1.)
  Comment: demonstratives can be suffixed onto the last word of the NP
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: gwôkk à dwóŋŋɪ̀
  Gloss: dog ATT big.SG-this
  Translation: this big dog (Noonan 1992: 155 ex. 2.)
  Comment: demonstratives can be suffixed onto the last word of the NP
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: òkélò òkwànò búk mân
  Gloss: Okelo 3s-read-perf book this
  Translation: Okelo read this book (Noonan 1992: 166 ex 2b.)
  Comment: demonstrative pronouns can also be used
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   19_Possessor Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: gwôkk à lócə̀
  Gloss: dog ATT man
  Translation: the man's dog (Noonan 1992: 154 ex 1.)
  Comment: possessives can be made with the associative construction
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Arwa Rangwala Pronominal associatives have a number of peculiarities. First, though they too distinguish alienable from inalienable, both kinds are suffixes and do not use the associative particle. Instead, the difference is indicated by gemmination (alienable) and its lack (inalienable) (Noonan 1992: 158). Forum
  Words: búkkə̀ à dwôŋ
  Gloss: book.1SPOSS ATT big
  Translation: my big book (Noonan 1992: 159 ex 1a.)
  Comment: Pronominal associatives can be suffixed to the head noun or the last element of the NP (Noonan 1992: 159).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: búkk à dwóŋ'ŋə́
  Gloss: book ATT big.1SPOSS
  Translation: my big book (Noonan 1992: 159 ex 1b.)
  Comment: Pronominal associatives can be suffixed to the head noun or the last element of the NP (Noonan 1992: 159).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: pyènə́
  Gloss: skin.1SG
  Translation: my skin (Noonan 1992: 158 ex 1.)
  Comment: This is an inalienable noun--note the lack of gemmination (see property value comment).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: pyènnə́
  Gloss: skin.1SPOSS
  Translation: my (animal) hide (Noonan 1992: 158 ex 1.)
  Comment: This noun is alienable--note the gemmination signifying this (see property value comment).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: kùll à ɲwé
  Gloss: wart+hog ATT 3S.smelly.HAB
  Translation: a smelly wart hog (= a wart hog that’s smelly) (Noonan 1992: 103 ex. 2)
  Comment: "To translate an attributive adjective from English to Lango, it is necessary to resort to a relative clause construction, i.e. adjectives are always predicates in Lango" (Noonan 1992: 103).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Arwa Rangwala There is certainly reason to set up adjectives as a class separate from verbs even though they have many characteristics in common with verbs, more certainly than their English counterparts (Noonan 1992: 105). Forum
  Words: ɲə̀ŋ dwôŋ
  Gloss: crocodile large.SG
  Translation: The crocodile is large (Noonan 1992: 104 ex. 3.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: ómɪ̀ttò dɔ̀kɔ̀ bɛ̀r
  Gloss: 1P.want.PROG become.INFIN good
  Translation: we want to be good (Noonan 1992: 105 ex. 4)
  Comment: Embedded under the want infinitive, the plural form bècò cannot be used, suggesting the presence of a singular PRO.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: àtíê ánwòŋŋò tɛ̂k tùtwàl
  Gloss: 1SG.be.PRES.HAB 1SG.find.PROG hard very
  Translation: I'm finding it very hard (Noonan 1992: 183 ex. 2.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: àŋéô nɪ̂ lócə̀ dágô tìc
  Gloss: 1SG.know.HAB comp man 3SG.hate.HAB work
  Translation: I know that the man hates work (Noonan 1992: 191 ex. 1.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator NA Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: lócə̏ pé òbɪ́nô pàcó
  Gloss: man neg come.3SG.PRF home
  Translation: The man didn't come home (Noonan 1992: 122 ex. 2.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: gwôkk à dwóŋŋɪ̀
  Gloss: dog ATT big.SG-this
  Translation: this big dog (Noonan 1992: 155 ex. 2.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Arwa Rangwala The grammar contains no examples. However, this could be yes, given the following comment (and given the fact adjectives are (reduced) relative clauses). Noonan 156: When the NP includes a relative clause, the determiner may be attached to the last word before the relative, be suffixed to the last word in the relative, or occur in both positions at once: (4) gwóggî à dɔ̀ŋɔ̀ àryɔ́nɪ̀ àmɛ̂ lócə̀ ònèkònɪ̀ dogs ATT big two-this REL man 3S.kill.PRF-this 'these two big dogs that the man killed' The longer the relative clause, the more likely the determiner is to be positioned before it. Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Arwa Rangwala Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: gwóggî à dɔ̀ŋɔ̀ àryɔ́nɪ̀
  Gloss: dogs ATT big.PL ATT-two-this
  Translation: these two big dogs (Noonan 1992: 156 ex. 3.)
  Comment: Bracketing is probably [gwóggî à dɔ̀ŋɔ̀ àryɔ́] nɪ̀
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Arwa Rangwala "Interrogative sentences·of all types have a rising intonation contour that peaks sharply on the last two syllables" (Noonan 1992:172). Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Arwa Rangwala Forum