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Latin (Late)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: lat-vul
  latlong: 41.902916,12.453389  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Giovanni Pairotti statistically dominant Forum
  Words: omnis populus intrat in Martyrium
  Gloss: all: NOM the people:NOM get: PRS: 3SG into the Martyrium
  Translation: 'all the people get into the Martyrium'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 43.7). 61,2% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample show this pattern – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Giovanni Pairotti a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30% Forum
  Words: intrat episcopus intro cancellos Anastasis
  Gloss: get: PRS: 3SG bishop: NOM into rail: PL Anastasis: GEN
  Translation: 'The bishop enters the rails of the Anastasis'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 38.2). This pattern is found in 38,8% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Giovanni Pairotti statistically dominant Forum
  Words: deducunt episcopum
  Gloss: accompany: PRS: 3PL bishop: ACC
  Translation: ‘they accompany the bishop’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 40.1). This pattern is found in 72,8% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample. VO sequences are the unmarked ones in Late Latin. See Bauer 2009: 271 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 04_Object Verb No Giovanni Pairotti a value ‘no’ was assigned since the statistical distribution is below 30% Forum
  Words: hoc palatium fecit
  Gloss: this: ACC palace: ACC build: PFV: 3SG
  Translation: ‘he built this palace’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 19.15). The pattern is found in 27,2% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample. OV sequences are residual in Late Latin. See Adams 1977: 93; Nocentini 1990: 151-153 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Giovanni Pairotti a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30% Forum
  Words: populus deducet episcopum
  Gloss: the people: NOM accompany: PRS: 3SG the bishop: ACC
  Translation: ‘the people accompany the bishop’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 27.6). The pattern is found in 35,5 % (my own data) of main active declarative clauses in the sample. See Spevak 2005: 240-249. SVO patterns can already be found in Plautus (3rd – 2nd cent. BCE) but they become dominant only in Late Latin. See Bauer 2009: 268-271 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Giovanni Pairotti a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30% Forum
  Words: omnis populus episcopum…ducet
  Gloss: all: NOM the people: NOM the bishop: ACC accompany: PRS: 3SG
  Translation: ‘all the people accompany the bishop’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 39.4). The pattern is considered to be the unmarked one in previous stages of Latin. See Bauer 2009: 268. It is still well attested in the 4th cent. CE: 32,3% (my own data) of the main active declarative clause in the sample show it. See Spevak 2005: 240-249 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Giovanni Pairotti a value 'no' was assigned since the statistical distribution is below 30% Forum
  Words: et offeret episcopus ibi oblationem
  Gloss: and consecrate: PRS: 3SG the bishop: NOM there the offering: ACC
  Translation: ‘and the bishop makes the offering there’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 35.2). The pattern amounts only to 16,1% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample. See Spevak 2005: 240-249. See also Sznajder and Bortolussi 2010 for the same pattern in the Vulgata – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Giovanni Pairotti a value 'no' was assigned since the statistical distribution is below 30% Forum
  Words: et leget resurrectionem Domini episcopus ipse
  Gloss: and read: PRS: 3SG the resurrection: ACC Lord: GEN the bishop: NOM himself: NOM
  Translation: ‘and the bishop himself reads the resurrection of the Lord’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 24.10). This is the only example in the sample (3,2% of the main active declarative clauses: my own data). See Spevak 2005: 240-249 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Giovanni Pairotti a value 'no' was assigned since the statistical distribution is below 30% Forum
  Words: signa cameli attendunt
  Gloss: the signals: ACC the camels: NOM make for: PRS: 3PL
  Translation: ‘the camels make for the signals’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 6.2). This is the only example in the sample (3,2% of the main active declarative clauses: my own data). See Spevak 2005: 240-249 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Giovanni Pairotti a value 'no' was assigned since the statistical distribution is below 30% Forum
  Words: omnium nomina annotat presbyter
  Gloss: everybody: GEN the names: ACC write down: PRS: 3SG a presbyter: NOM
  Translation: ‘a presbyter writes down the names of everybody’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 45.1). The pattern is found only in 9,7% (my own data) of main active declarative clauses. See Spevak 2005: 240-249 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: super ipsa valle tota
  Gloss: above that:ABL valley:ABL entire:ABL
  Translation: 'above that entire valley'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 5.16) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Comment: Even the postpositions of Classical Latin ('gratia', 'causa') show a predominant P-N order in the variety under consideration (e.g. Itin. Eg. 19.5 gratia religionis 'for religion's sake'). The only case where adposition is post-N are found when 'cum' = 'with' encliticizes to personal pronouns (e.g. Itin. Eg. 1.2 nobiscum = 'with us') - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: multos enim sanctos monachos
  Gloss: many:ACC in_fact holy:ACC monks:ACC
  Translation: in fact, many holy monks
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 13.1) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: AN orders: 284 / 567 = 50% (Gianollo 2005: 176). Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: fluvius ingens argenteus
  Gloss: river:NOM big:NOM silver:NOM
  Translation: 'a big silver river'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 19.7) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: NA orders: 283 / 567 = 50% (Gianollo 2005: 176). Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Chiara Gianollo statistically dominant Forum
  Words: et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus
  Gloss: and was there forty:ABL days:ABL and forty:ABL nights:ABL
  Translation: 'and (sc. Moses) stayed there for forty days and forty nights'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 2.2) - This is the statistically dominant order for both cardinal and ordinal numerals, as in Classical Latin, cf. Lisón-Huguet (2001: 108), Spevak (2010: 246) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Chiara Gianollo statistically marked order Forum
  Words: hora noctis secunda
  Gloss: hour:ABL night:GEN second:ABL
  Translation: 'at the second hour of the night'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 40.2) - This is the statistically marked order for both cardinal and ordinal numerals, as in Classical Latin, cf. Lisón-Huguet (2001: 108), Spevak (2010: 246) - In the Itin. Eg. it is typically found with an ordinal and the head noun 'hora' (hour), but cf. also e.g. Itin. Eg. 6.1 milia triginta et quinque 'thirty-five miles' - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: ad illud caput vallis
  Gloss: to that:ACC head:ACC valley:GEN
  Translation: 'to that head (initial part) of the valley'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 2.3) - This is still the statistically dominant order, as in Classical Latin, although postposition of the demonstrative becomes more frequent - cf. Iovino (2012: 119, 130) for texts from the 3-4 cent. CE: HIC > N : 87%; ILLE > N: 55%; ISTE > N: 66% - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Chiara Gianollo a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30% Forum
  Words: montes illi, inter quos ibamus
  Gloss: mountains:NOM those:NOM, between which:ACC were going:IPFV:1PL
  Translation: 'those mountains, which we were crossing'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 1.1) - Postposition of the demonstrative was possible in Classical Latin but becomes more frequent in Late Latin; in the Itin. Eg. N > Dem is found especially in cataphoric function, cf. Nocentini 1990 - cf. Iovino (2012: 119, 130) for texts from the 3-4 cent. CE: N > HIC: 13%; N > ILLE : 45%; N > ISTE : 34% - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Chiara Gianollo only in residual lexicalized expressions Forum
  Words: ante pullorum cantum
  Gloss: before cocks:GEN crow:ACC
  Translation: 'before the cock crow'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 24.1) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: GN orders: 35 / 540 = 6.5% (Gianollo 2005: 172). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011. Mostly in residual lexicalized expressions (sine Dei gratias, 2.7; )- Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90)
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: castra filiorum Israhel
  Gloss: camp:NOM sons:GEN Israel:GEN
  Translation: 'the camp of the sons of Israel'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 5.13) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: NG orders: 505 / 540 = 93.5% (Gianollo 2005: 172). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Chiara Gianollo residual Forum
  Words: in suis monasteriis
  Gloss: in their:ABL monasteries:ABL
  Translation: 'in their monasteries'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 5.66) residual - General distribution for phi-features-agreeing possessive adjectives in the Itin. Eg: PronominalPoss-N orders: 5 / 101 = 5% (Gianollo 2005: 175). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: in omni vita sua
  Gloss: in entire:ABL life:ABL his:ABL
  Translation: 'in his entire life'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 9.2) General distribution for phi-features-agreeing possessive adjectives in the Itin. Eg: N-PronominalPoss orders: 96 / 101 = 95% (Gianollo 2005: 175). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: locus autem ipse satis gratus est
  Gloss: place:NOM then that:NOM quite pleasant:NOM is
  Translation: 'that place is quite pleasant'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 7.8) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: vallem infinitam, ingens, planissima et valde pulchram
  Gloss: valley:ACC endless:ACC, enormous:ACC, flat:SUP-ACC and very beautiful:ACC
  Translation: 'an endless, enormous, very flat and very beautiful valley'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 1.1) - the example shows the synthetic (-issim- in 'planissima') and the analytic ('valde') strategy to express degree - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: iter eremi arenosum valde
  Gloss: way:ACC desert:GEN sandy:ACC very
  Translation: '(we took) a very sandy way through the desert'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 6.29) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Chiara Gianollo Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: tamen ipse labor non sentiebatur
  Gloss: however that:NOM effort:NOM not feel:IPFV.3SG.PASS
  Translation: 'however that effort was not felt'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.2) negative particle need not be adjacent to verb - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: illos sanctos monachos, qui...
  Gloss: those:ACC holy:ACC monks:ACC, who:NOM
  Translation: 'those holy monks, who...'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 11.2) unmarked; Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: illa una septimana paschalis, quam...
  Gloss: that:NOM one:NOM week:NOM of.Easter:NOM, which:ACC
  Translation: 'that one week of Easter, which…' ('paschalis' has adjectival morphology)
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 46.5) unmarked; Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: deductores sancti illi, qui nobiscum erant
  Gloss: guides:NOM holy:NOM those:NOM, who:NOM we:DAT=with be:IPFV.3PL
  Translation: 'those holy guides, who were with us'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 1.2) less frequent than patterns with pre-N demonstrative; Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: mare illud Parthenicum, quod...
  Gloss: sea:ACC that:ACC Parthenian:ACC, which:NOM
  Translation: '(and I saw) that Parthenian Sea, which...'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.8) found quite frequently (cf. also Itin. Eg. 5.1, 5.10, 21.2…) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: de ceteris autem illis civitatibus
  Gloss: of remaining:ABL then those:ABL towns:ABL
  Translation: 'of those other towns'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 12.6) quite rare - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: in extrema iam valle ipsa
  Gloss: in farthest:ABL PRT valley:ABL that:ABL
  Translation: 'right at the end of the valley'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 5.10) quite rare - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: ipsis autem octo diebus paschalibus
  Gloss: those:ABL then eight days:ABL of.Easter:ABL
  Translation: 'during those eight days of Easter'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 39.3) frequent, unmarked order - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: per ipsos dies quadraginta, quibus
  Gloss: for those:ACC days:ACC forty, which:ABL
  Translation: 'for those forty days, in which...'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 46.1) less frequent - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Chiara Gianollo Not found in my sample. More extensive corpus research would be needed to safely assess this point. Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Chiara Gianollo Not found in my sample. More extensive corpus research would be needed to safely assess this point. Forum
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: octo autem illi dies paschales
  Gloss: eight then those:NOM days:NOM of.Easter:NOM
  Translation: 'those eight days of Easter'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 39.1) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Chiara Gianollo Not found in my sample. More extensive corpus research would be needed to safely assess this point. Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Chiara Gianollo Particle 'ne' is second-position due to its clitic status, hence falls under Property Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Comment: -ne is residual in Late Latin authors according to Brown, Joseph & Wallace (2009: 519) = H. Paul Brown, Brian D. Joseph, and Rex E. Wallace, 'Questions and Answers', in Baldi and Cuzzolin (eds), New Perspectives on Historical Latin Syntax, Vol. 1, 489-530.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: qui cum accessisset ad eam ait illi 'tu es Ioab?' et ille respondit 'ego'
  Gloss: who:NOM when approach:SBJV.PRFV.3SG to she:ACC say:PRS.3SG that:DAT PERS.PR.2SG.NOM be:PRS.2SG Ioab and that:NOM answer:IPFV.3PL PERS.PR.1SG.NOM
  Translation: When he approached her the woman said "Are you Joab?" And he answered "I am."
  Comment: (II Samuelis 20:17) no difference in word order with respect to a declarative clause - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: accedens autem tribunus dixit illi 'dic mihi, tu Romanus es?' at ille dixit 'etiam'
  Gloss: get_close:PTCP then tribune say:PFV.3SG that:DAT tell:IMP PERS.PR.1SG.DAT PERS.PR.2SG.NOM Roman:NOM be:PRS.2SG but that:NOM say:PFV:3SG yes
  Translation: 'and getting close the tribune said to him: "tell me, are you a Roman citizen?" and he said "yes" '
  Comment: (Actus Apostolorum 22.27) various adverbs / modal particles are used (ita, sic, etiam, verum) - - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Comment: More in general, the element in focus can be repeated; cf. 'ego' as answer to the polar question in Q04_Polar question by intonation
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Comment: e.g. 'minime' (not at all), which is also normally used otherwise as adverbial modifier; cf. Gen 19.2 - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: et ait ad me dicens 'numquid nescis quid sunt haec?' et dixi 'non, domine'
  Gloss: and answer:PRS.3SG to PERS.PR.1SG:ACC say:PTCP:NOM INT.PRT ignore.PRS.SG what:NOM be:PRS.3PL these:NOM and say:PFV.1SG no master:VOC
  Translation: 'Then he replied asking me "Don't you know what these are?" and I replied "No, my lord" '
  Comment: (Zachariah 4) this example is however not a plain question, but rather a polar question biased towards a negative answer (since it is introduced by 'numquid') - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
  Words: sit autem sermo vester "est est non non"
  Gloss: be:SBJV.3PL then word:NOM your:NOM be:PRS.3SG be:PRS.3SG not not
  Translation: 'But let your statement be, "Yes, yes" or "No, no" '
  Comment: (Matth. 5.37) - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Giovanni Pairotti Forum
  Words: tunc de ecclesia monazontes cum ymnis ducunt episcopum usque ad Anastasim
  Gloss: then from the church: ABL monazontes: NOM with hymns: ABL accompany: PRS: 3PL the bishop: ACC all the way to the Anastasis: ACC
  Translation: ‘then the monazontes accompany the bishop with hymns from the church to the Anastasis’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 25.2) – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Giovanni Pairotti Forum
  Words: quid generatio ista quaerit signum?
  Gloss: why generation: NOM this: NOM seek: PRS: 3SG a sign: ACC
  Translation: ‘why does this generation seek a sign?’
  Comment: (Marc. 8.12) – Marc. = Biblia sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem (Novum Testamentum): Evangelium secundum Marcum (ab Hieronymo iuxta graecum emendatum), 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=Biblia sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem, ed. B. Fischer, J. Gribomont, H.F.D. Sparks, W. Thiele et R. Weber, 1975, p. 1658-1697)
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: ecclesia habet de se gratiam grandem
  Gloss: church:NOM have:PRS.3SG from REFL.PR.ABL grace:ACC great:ACC
  Translation: 'the church emanates great grace'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.3) abstract noun - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
  Words: et de eo torrente aquam bibebat
  Gloss: and from this:ABL stream:ABL water:ACC drink:IPFV.3SG
  Translation: 'and he would drink water from this stream'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 16.3) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Chiara Gianollo still only rare and isolated examples during the stage considered here Forum
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: tu servasti bonum vinum usque adhuc
  Gloss: PERS.PR.2SG.NOM keep:PRFV.2SG good:ACC wine:ACC until now
  Translation: 'But you have kept the good wine until now'
  Comment: (Johannes 2:10) modified mass noun - wine (and contrast between good and cheap) is mentioned in previous context - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
  Words: et vinum erat ante eum et levavi vinum et dedi regi
  Gloss: and wine:NOM be:IPFV:3SG before PR:ACC and lift:PFV.1SG wine:ACC and give:PFV.1SG king:DAT
  Translation: 'wine was before him, I took up the wine and gave it to the king'
  Comment: (Nehem. 2.1) - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Chiara Gianollo Latin has no articles, but a demonstrative is possible Forum
  Words: Domine da mihi hanc aquam
  Gloss: Master:VOC give:IMP.2SG PERS.PR.1SG:DAT this:ACC water:ACC
  Translation: 'My lord, give me this water'
  Comment: (Iohannes 4.15) - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: nam ipse vicus ecclesiam habet
  Gloss: in.fact this:NOM village:NOM church:ACC have:PRS.3SG
  Translation: 'in fact this village has a church'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 7.7) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Chiara Gianollo still only rare and isolated examples during the stage considered here Forum
  Words: et videns fici arborem unam secus viam
  Gloss: and see:PTCP fig:GEN tree:ACC one:ACC along road:ACC
  Translation: 'and seeing a fig tree along the road'
  Comment: (Matthaeus 21:19) the use of 'unus' one without a clear cardinal value, as in this example, is still rare - NP in the example contains a genitive - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE.
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: nos ergo sabbato sera ingressi sumus montem
  Gloss: PERS.PR.1PL:NOM then saturday:ABL late:ABL reach:PTCP.NOM AUX.3SG mountain:NOM
  Translation: 'We reached the mountain late on the sabbath'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.1) the mountain (Sinai) is introduced in the previous context, and is thus unique and familiar - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Chiara Gianollo Latin has no articles, but a demonstrative is possible Forum
  Words: Ipsam ergo vallem nos traversare habebamus
  Gloss: this:ACC then valley:ACC PERS.PR.1SG.NOM cross:INF have:IPFV.1PL
  Translation: 'Therefore we had to cross that valley'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 2.1) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: statim sancti monachi…arbusculas ponunt
  Gloss: immediately holy:NOM monk:NOM little.trees:ACC put:PRS.3PL
  Translation: 'the holy monks immediately plant small trees'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.6) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Chiara Gianollo Forum
+ w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Chiara Gianollo still only rare and isolated examples during the stage considered here Forum
  Words:  dederunt nobis presbyteri loci ipsius eulogias, id est de pomis, quae in ipso monte nascuntur
  Gloss: give:PFV.3PL PERS.PR.1PL.DAT priest:NOM place:GEN that:GEN eulogiae:ACC, that:NOM be:PRS.3SG from/of fruit:ABL which:NOM in that:ABL mountain:ABL grow:PRS.3P
  Translation: 'the priests of the place gave us eulogiae, that is, of fruits which grow on the mountain'
  Comment: Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.6) still rarely at this stage, the precursor of so-called 'partitive article' of Romance languages can be found, e.g. here preposition 'de' + ablative, still with a clear directional value, cf. Itin. Eg, 15.6 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Chiara Gianollo Forum
  Words: nocte autem signa cameli attendunt
  Gloss: night:ABL then sign:ACC camel:NOM follow:PRS.3PL
  Translation: 'but at night the camels follow the signs'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 6.2) the signs have been introduced in the discourse in the sentence before (humans put street signs and follow them during the day, camels can follow the signs at night) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Chiara Gianollo Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Chiara Gianollo Latin has no articles, but a demonstrative is possible Forum