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Maasai (Kisongo)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: mas
  latlong: -3.365789,36.67445  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   02_Verb Subject Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ayieu enkalem kiti
  Gloss: 1S.want SG.FEM.knife.ACC small(fem).ACC
  Translation: I want the/a small knife
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   04_Object Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object No Hilda Koopman Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Hilda Koopman There is a single generalized P Forum
  Words: t-oo l-ayiok
  Gloss: P-PL.MS D.PL.boy.PL.NOM
  Translation: (with, for, by, at, etc.) the boys
  Comment: t- is an all purpose P, followed by an agreement marker, with common noun objects. (agreement with the prepositional object in number and gender) . The preposiitonal object itself carries nominative case, expressed as a tonal pattern (prefix/suffix); The form is te/ti before proper nouns/pronouns/nouns without gender prefix. (Tucker Mpaayei, p. 42)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Two As, kiti (small) and kuti (few) can precede or follow the N. No other adjectives can precede the N. The word for 'other' can only precede N, but does not look like an A . Forum
  Words: ayieu en-kiti alem (or: ayieu enk-alem kiti)
  Gloss: 1S.want SG.FEM-small knife (or 1A.want SG.FEM knife small)
  Translation: I want the small knife
  Comment: One A root (ki.ti 'fem.sg-small, young' and o-ti 'ms.sg-small' and ku-ti 'pl.few, a little' can either precede or follow N (yielding ART A N or Art N A)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman two kinds of adjectives; 1. carry nominal inflectional morphology, 2. verbal morphology Forum
   15_Numeral Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   16_Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ena alem// enda alem// ele ayioni //ene wueji// ku-lo ayiok
  Gloss: this knife//that knife// this boy.sg//this place//these boys
  Translation: this knife//this boy.sg//this place//these boys
  Comment: demonstratives seem to be composed of an article like element (sg/plural), encoding gender (n(fem, l ms), followed by Demonstrative root (n)a, (n)da, (n)e.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: aa-dol ol-bitir ngiro
  Gloss: 3s.1O.see SG.MS-pig.SG.NOM brown.NOM.SG
  Translation: The bown pig sees me (Mpaayei and Tucker, p.191)
  Comment: adjective agrees in case and number with N.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: torrono emuny
  Gloss: bad.acc.sg sg.fem.rhino.nom
  Translation: lit. A rhino is (in general) bad. Rhinos are mean.
  Comment: when used predicatively the case form (realized as a tonal pattern) is the unmarked accusative. This sentence can only have a generic reading.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Hilda Koopman Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: eyeu naleng nelo
  Gloss: 3s.want a.lot C-3s. go
  Translation: He really wants to go He very much wants to go
  Comment: n marks a subjunctive clause. Clausal complements of verbs of saying of thinking do not need to be introduced by a complementizer. The form a.jo (inf.sg.say) can introduce indirect speech, or direct speech. n.cere can introduce clausal complements of verbs like read, write
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: a-ewuo pee a-dol
  Gloss: 1s-came-PERF in.order 1s-see (him)
  Translation: I came in order to see him
  Comment: pee is optional in this particular example. 3rd person object is silent. pro drop of third person object
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Extra Examples No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Hilda Koopman In the present a prefix/particle m(I) precedes the present tensed verb (SA/O-V-appl)... Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Hilda Koopman It difficult to determine if negation of the present is a prefix or a particle. Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Hilda Koopman For the Past and n-tense: an indiclinable auxiliary (eitu) occurs, which precedes the present tense form. (Tucker and Mpaayei, p.67.). Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb Yes Hilda Koopman the past tense uses an invariant verbal form/auxiliary taking the present tense form as its complement. This verb/auxiliary has invariant 3rd person inflection. Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification Yes Hilda Koopman many forms of negation contain a high tone (exception: negation of present present tense) Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Toriko ena kɨtɨ kerai!
  Gloss: Take this small child!
  Translation: Take this small child!
  Comment: from: http://pages.uoregon.edu/maasai/Maa%20Lexicon/lexicon/main.htm
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Not Yet Set Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum