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Malagasy

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: mlg
  latlong: -18.914872,47.531612  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Enjehin-dRabe ny mpangalatra
  Gloss: chase.TT-GEN.Rabe DET thief
  Translation: Rabe chases/is chasing the thief
  Comment: Traditional grammars would call 'ny mpangalatra' the subject here, and say the verb is in the passive voice. However, 'Rabe' here does have some significant subject-like properties. Note: TT stands for 'Theme Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the theme.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Manenjika ny mpangalatra Rabe
  Gloss: PRES.AT.chase DET thief Rabe
  Translation: Rabe chases/is chasing the thief.
  Comment: Note: AT stands for 'Actor Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the agent. Also, in AT, the m- prefix on the verb alternates with n- (for past) and h- (for future).
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   04_Object Verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ 07_Verb Subject Object Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Enjehi+ny izy
  Gloss: chase.TT+3.GEN 3.NOM
  Translation: He/she/they chase(s) him/her/them
  Comment: See note for VS property setting.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Manenjika azy izy
  Gloss: PRES.AT.chase 3.ACC 3.NOM
  Translation: He/she/they chase(s) him/her/them
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   09_Object Subject Verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: ambonin'ny latabatra
  Gloss: on.top.of'DET table
  Translation: on top of the table
  Comment: The apostrophe is standard Malagasy orthography.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: ny zaza marary
  Gloss: DET child sick
  Translation: the sick child
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   15_Numeral Noun No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Tsy miteny ny zaza telo
  Gloss: NEG PRES.AT.speak DET child three
  Translation: The three children are not speaking
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: io trano io
  Gloss: DEM house DEM
  Translation: that house
  Comment: Each of the seven demonstratives in Malagasy must frame the noun phrase it is qualifying. As seen here, the demonstrative 'ity' appears both before the noun phrase and after. Very occasionally, the second demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: io trano io
  Gloss: DEM house DEM
  Translation: this house
  Comment: Each of the seven demonstratives in Malagasy must frame the noun phrase it is qualifying. As seen here, the demonstrative 'ity' appears both before the noun phrase and after. Very occasionally, the second demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   19_Possessor Noun No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: ny tranon-dRasoa
  Gloss: DET house-GEN.Rasoa
  Translation: Rasoa's house
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ny trano.ko
  Gloss: DET house.1SG.GEN
  Translation: ’My house’
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ny trano.ny
  Gloss: Det house.3SG
  Translation: His/her house
  Comment: 3rd sg poss is homophonous with the determiner
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: io trano lehibe io
  Gloss: DEM house big DEM
  Translation: this big house
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Tena lava Rabe
  Gloss: very tall Rabe
  Translation: Rabe is very tall
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Lava be Rabe
  Gloss: tall much Rabe
  Translation: Rabe is very tall
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: ireo trano lehibe ireo
  Gloss: DEM.PL house big DEM.PL
  Translation: these big houses
  Comment: The demonstrative here forces a plural interpretation of the noun phrase, and as can be seen, the adjective does not change to agree with the plural noun.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: ny lehilahy izay nampian-dRabe tany an-tsena
  Gloss: DET man COMP PST.help.TT-GEN.Rabe PST.LOC at-market
  Translation: the man that Rabe helped at the market
  Comment: Note: TT stands for 'Theme Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the theme.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Mihevitra aho fa mbola marary Rasoa
  Gloss: PRES.AT.think 1SG.NOM COMP still sick Rasoa
  Translation: I think that Rasoa is still sick.
  Comment: Note: AT stands for 'Actor Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the agent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Tsy nanatrika ny fety Rabe satria marary (izy)
  Gloss: NEG PST.AT.attend DET party Rabe because sick 3.NOM
  Translation: Rabe didn't attend the party because he was sick.
  Comment: Note: AT stands for 'Actor Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the agent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ Extra Examples Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Misy zazakely betsaka ao an-trano
  Gloss: PRES.AT.exist child many THERE LOC-house
  Translation: There are many children in the house
  Comment: This is an example of an existential.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: ity boky mena ity
  Gloss: DEM.close book red DEM.close
  Translation: this red book
  Comment: Each of the seven demonstratives in Malagasy must frame the noun phrase it is qualifying. As seen here, the demonstrative 'ity' appears both before the noun phrase and after. Very occasionally, the second demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: ity boky mena ity
  Gloss: DEM.close book red DEM.close
  Translation: this red book
  Comment: Each of the seven demonstratives in Malagasy must frame the noun phrase it is qualifying. As seen here, the demonstrative 'ity' appears both before the noun phrase and after. Very occasionally, the second demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: ...ka moa va tsy tokony ho tantaraina amin'ny taranaka rehetra
  Gloss: Q Q not should FUT be.told.TT to'the descendants all
  Translation: Should (this story) be told to all the future generations?
  Comment: Although the main strategy for forming polar questions is using the 've/va' particle, there is a secondary way to form these questions which is illustrated here. This involves an initial 'moa', which is an emphatic, normally accompanied by another question marker or negation (when it's used for polar questions). We do not think that moa is an independent question word in the way that ve/va is.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: m-i-tady an'i Lalao any Antsirabe ve Rabe
  Gloss: AT.PRES-AT-seek ACC'DET Lalao there Antsirabe Q Rabe
  Translation: Is Rabe looking for Lalao in Antsirabe?
  Comment: The polar question marker 've/va' appears following the entire predicate and preceding the subject/topic.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Rabe ve no n-an-ao izany?
  Gloss: Rabe Q FOC PST-AT-do that
  Translation: Was it Rabe who did that?
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Ho avy ve ny orana? Eny.
  Gloss: FUT come Q the rain yes
  Translation: Is it going to rain? Yes.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Ho avy ve ny orana? Tsia.
  Gloss: FUT come Q the rain no
  Translation: Is it going to rain? No.
  Comment: 'Tsia' is clearly related to the regular sentential negation, 'tsy'.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
  Words: Tsy tonga ve Rakoto? Eny.
  Gloss: NEG arrive Q Rakoto yes
  Translation: Did Rakoto not arrive? Yes (Rakoto didn't arrive). / Didn't Rakoto arrive? Yes (Rakoto didn't arrive).
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Comment: all property values set on the basis of Paul (2006), On the presence versus absence of determiners in Malagasy. Examples to be added.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman A comment from Paul (2000): Zribi-Hertz and Mbolatianavalona (1999:186) claim that the definite determiner ny is barred from the object position (unless required to license a modifier). They propose that there is a null determiner that is in complementary distribution with ny. I have never worked with a speaker with this restriction...." Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading Yes Hilda Koopman nouns do not show singular plural distinctions Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman unless modified? or contrast is involved (judging from the examples in Paul (2000), who cites (Rajaona 1972:432) ) tia buki frantasay 'I like French books (in general) vs tia buki ny frantsay 'I like books that are FRENCH as oppose to books in other languages .) Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum