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Mandarin

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: cmn
  latlong: 39.928889, 116.388333  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb Yes Arthur Wang Forum
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: zou le henduo ren
  Gloss: leave PFV many person
  Translation: Many people left.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   03_Verb Object Yes Arthur Wang Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Arthur Wang In the ba-construction (S ba O V) Forum
  Comment: In object topicalization (object- (subject)-verb), sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the ba-construction (S ba O V)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Arthur Wang Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Arthur Wang In the ba- construction. (S ba O V) Forum
  Comment: In sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the ba-construction (S ba O V)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   07_Verb Subject Object No Arthur Wang Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Arthur Wang Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Arthur Wang Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Arthur Wang Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: cong Taipei
  Gloss: from Taipei
  Translation: from Taipei
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: Taipei li
  Gloss: Taipei in
  Translation: in Taipei
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: yi ge hao ren
  Gloss: one CLF good person
  Translation: a good person
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   14_Noun Adjective No Arthur Wang Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: liang ke pingguo
  Gloss: two CLF apple
  Translation: two apples
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: pingguo liang ke
  Gloss: apple two CLF
  Translation: two apples
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: zhe ge nanren
  Gloss: this CLF man
  Translation: this man
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Arthur Wang Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: wo de shu
  Gloss: I GEN book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   20_Noun Possessor No Arthur Wang Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Timothy Ho Forum
  Words: wo de shu
  Gloss: 1 GEN book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Timothy Ho Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Arthur Wang Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Arthur Wang Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: hen da
  Gloss: very big
  Translation: very big
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ A 04_Adjective Degree yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: mei jile
  Gloss: beautiful extremely
  Translation: extremely beautiful
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Arthur Wang Forum
  Comment: Mandarin dose not use auxiliary verbs to form perfect (past) tense.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   C 01_Complementizer Clause NA Arthur Wang Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer NA Arthur Wang Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: wo yao shui yinwei wo lei le
  Gloss: I want sleep because I tired PFV
  Translation: I want to sleep because I am tired
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: *wo yao shui wo lei le yinwei
  Gloss: I want sleep I tired PFV because
  Translation: I want to sleep because I am tired
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Extra Examples Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: ni chi le ma
  Gloss: 2sg eat Perf Q
  Translation: Did you eat?
  Comment: .ma. occurs whenever the sentence is a yes-no question. .Perf. stands for perfective aspect.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
  Words: Lisi shuo Zhangsan zai changge
  Gloss: Lisi say Zhangsan Prog sing.song
  Translation: Lisi says that Zhangsan is singing.
  Comment: Nothing between the matrix verb and the embedded clause.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: fangjian li you san zhang yizi
  Gloss: room in have three CLF chair
  Translation: There are three chairs in the room.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Arthur Wang Not as frequent/productive as Num N Forum
  Words: fangjian li you yizi san zhang
  Gloss: room in have chair three CLF
  Translation: There are three chairs in the room.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: na si feng xin zuotian dao-le
  Gloss: the four letter yesterday arrive-PFV
  Translation: The four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: *na xin si feng zuotian dao-le
  Gloss: the letter four yesterday arrive-PFV
  Translation: lit: The four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Arthur Wang Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Arthur Wang Mandarin has singular demonstratives zhe 'this' and na 'that', and plural ones, zhexie 'these' and naxie 'those'. In the given context, only the singular dem is licit (zhe san ge (murals) this three CL zhexie (murals) these but not: *zhexie san ge (murals) these three CL Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Arthur Wang Forum
+ N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Arthur Wang Forum
  Comment: Plural marker ‘men’ (animate) cannot occur with numerals regardless of definiteness.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Arthur Wang Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Arthur Wang Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Mark Donohue Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Timothy Ho Forum
  Words: ta bu xihuan wo
  Gloss: 3S NEG like 1S
  Translation: He doesn't like me.
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
  Words: wo bu qu
  Gloss: I NEG go
  Translation: I don’t go.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Timothy Ho Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Timothy Ho Forum
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Timothy Ho Forum
  Words: waimian mei(you) gui
  Gloss: outside NEG(have) ghost
  Translation: There aren’t any ghosts outside.
  Comment: “you (have, there is /are)” may or may not be present.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Timothy Ho Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: zhe duo hong hua
  Gloss: DEM CL red flower
  Translation: this red flower
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Arthur Wang Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Arthur Wang Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Arthur Wang Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: hou de zhe ben shu
  Gloss: thick DE DEM CLF book
  Translation: this thick book
  Comment: "de" is a modifier marker that occurs after an adjective.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Arthur Wang Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Mark Donohue Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Mark Donohue Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Mark Donohue Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Mark Donohue Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Arthur Wang The following kind-denoting type of example illustrates this order, but does not meet the context givn in the definition : wo mai le san bei zhe zhong yinliao I buy Asp three cup this kind drink Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Mark Donohue Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Arthur Wang Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Arthur Wang Forum
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: Q: ni lai ma? A: lai.
  Gloss: : Q: you come Q A: come
  Translation: lit: Q: Are you coming? A: Yes.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Arthur Wang Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Arthur Wang Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Arthur Wang Forum
+ Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: Q: ni he kafei ma? A: shi (de)
  Gloss: Q: you drink coffe Q A: be (PRT)
  Translation: Q: Do you drink coffee? A: Yes.
  Comment: It is more frequent and more natural to attach the particle “de” to this form of answer.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Arthur Wang Forum
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: Q: ni e-le ma? A: bu.
  Gloss: Q: you hungry-PFV Q A: NEG
  Translation: Q: Are you hungry? A: No.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: Q: ni qu ma? A: bu qu.
  Gloss: Q: you go Q A: NEG go
  Translation: Q: Are you going? A: No.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: Q: Are you going? A: No.
  Gloss: Q: Mary NEG go-school Q A: be (NEG go-school) (DE)
  Translation: Q: Did Mary not go to school? A: Yes (she did not go to school).
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Arthur Wang Forum
  Words: Q: Mary mei shangxue? A: mei (shangxue)
  Gloss: Q: Mary NEG go-school Q A: NEG (go-school)
  Translation: Q: Did Mary not go to school? A: No (she did not go to school).
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Arthur Wang Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Arthur Wang Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Timothy Ho Forum
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Timothy Ho Forum
  Words: wei shen me ni fang xue hou hai zong dai zai xue xiao?
  Gloss: why you after-school still always stay LOC school
  Translation: Why do you often stay after school?
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum