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Middle Dutch

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: dum
  latlong: 51.216667,3.233333  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Ghi sijt noch ionc ende behoeft sere te wassen
  Gloss: You are.2pl still young and need much to grow
  Translation: you are still young and still need to grow a lot
  Comment: also with full NPs
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   02_Verb Subject No Gertjan Postma Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Ende elken mensche doet sinen vrede
  Gloss: and every man does.3sg his.ACC peace
  Translation: and every man does his peace
  Comment: also with object pronouns
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: (...) wet wel, dat ic al dit niet dore v en hebbe gheseghet, mer...
  Gloss: know PRT, that I all this not by you NEG have said, but ...
  Translation: do know that I have not said all this because of you, but
  Comment: in composed tenses and embbeded clauses
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Comment: example under 03
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Want hi heuet v ghehuet van allen ocsune
  Gloss: For he has you saved from all sins
  Translation: For he has saved you from all sins
  Comment: in complex tenses and embedded clauses. SVO in main clauses is common as well.
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   07_Verb Subject Object No Gertjan Postma Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Gertjan Postma Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Gertjan Postma Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Gertjan Postma Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Gertjan Postma This is the standard order Forum
  Words: Tes hi quam te Maupertus /Ende vant Reynaerde in zijn huus
  Gloss: Until he came at Maupertus/ and found Reinaert in his house
  Translation: Until he came at Maupertus and found Reinaert at home
  Comment: prepositions are the common case of appositions; prepositions govern the dative, accusative or genitive case
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Verware mijn stede di beneven
  Gloss: guard my place you next
  Translation: protect my place at your side
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
  Words: Dlant dat hem lach beneven
  Gloss: the-land that him.DAT laid beside
  Translation: the land that was laying beside him
  Comment: Note: non-adjacency of NP and P; not clearly separable from the resultative particle construction
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
  Words: Doe leedde hi tfolc den berghe bi
  Gloss: Then guided he the.ACC.N-people.ACC.N the.DAT.M mountain.DAT.M along
  Translation: Then he guided the people along the mountain
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
  Words: Alle steden die den hemel zijn beneden
  Gloss: all towns that the-ACC sky/heaven.ACC are below
  Translation: all towns that are below heaven
  Comment: difficult to separate from adverbial use of 'beneden'. Non-adjacency is especially common if the NP has genitive case
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: dien groten werken
  Gloss: the.DAT great.DATworks.DAT
  Translation: the great works
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: tekene vele groot
  Gloss: signs much great
  Translation: very great signs
  Comment: post-verbally, the attributive adjective (groot) remains uninflected
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Harre drier namen
  Gloss: her.DAT three.DAT names.DAT
  Translation: to her three names
  Comment: this is the general case
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Si zochte.... of daer eneghe klavere stoet met bladen viere.
  Gloss: They looked if there any clover stood with leaves four.INF
  Translation: They looked if there was any clover with four leaves
  Comment: only in indefinite NPs (in poetry)
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: uut desen prisoen
  Gloss: out of this.ACC.M prison
  Translation: out of this prison
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Gertjan Postma Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: al Reinaerts maghen
  Gloss: all Reinaert.GEN kinsmen
  Translation: all Reinaert's family
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: op die goetheit gods
  Gloss: on the goodness God.GEN
  Translation: on the goodness of God
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Comment: see under 03
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Waer es die evangelie dijn
  Gloss: where is the.F gospel.F your.ø
  Translation: Where is your gospel?
  Comment: in post-nominal position, the pronoun remains uninflected
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: te minre stede /te minen lande
  Gloss: at my.DAT.F place.F/ at my.DAT.N land.DAT.N
  Translation: at my place/land
  Comment: not visible in all Case-forms
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Gertjan Postma Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Comment: see 14
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Een cledekijn diere ghenouch
  Gloss: a cloth.DIM dear enough
  Translation: a rather precious small robe
  Comment: only with 'ghenoegh'; only with post-nominal and predictive adjectives (adverbs)
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: du hebste langhe genoech ghedwaelt/alle menschen die ghedwaelt sijn van minen lieven sone
  Gloss: thou hast long enough erred / all people that erred are from my dear son
  Translation: you have erred long enough / all people that went astray from my dear Son
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: hi sal weten dattie goetheit sijns liefs meere es dan sijn sneuen.
  Gloss: he shall know that-the goodness his.GEN love.GEN more is than his perishing
  Translation: he must know that the goodness of his love is more than his perishing
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Gertjan Postma Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Extra Examples NA Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Gertjan Postma Forum
+ Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Hem en roeket wiet deerde
  Gloss: him NEG matter who-it harmed.3sg
  Translation: It did not matter to him to whom it did harm
  Comment: The negative pre-verbal clictic is always reinforced with other negative constituent, unless in the presence of an NPI (like 'roeken' in the example
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Die helege ewangelie waer
  Gloss: the.F holy.F gospel true.ø
  Translation: the holy true gospel
  Comment: the prost nominal adjective remains uninflected
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Gertjan Postma Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Tot den twe cnapen
  Gloss: to the.DAT twee boys.DAT
  Translation: to the two boys
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Daer ghescieden der mieraclen twee
  Gloss: There happened the.GEN miracles.pl two
  Translation: There happened two miracles
  Comment: I do not consider this an instance, as the pre-numeral constituent has genitive Case. With indefinite NPs postposition of Num is common, see 16
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Gertjan Postma Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Gertjan Postma Forum
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Bi ghenen twiuele noch bi ghenen onspoede en suldi laten doecht te werkene
  Gloss: Upon no doubt nor upon any misfortune NEG shall-you abstain virtue to work
  Translation: Under no circumstances shall you abstain from doing virtue
  Comment: V2 is the standard pattern. The preverbal negative clitic does not count for V2.
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second Yes Gertjan Postma Forum
  Words: Egidius, waer bestu bleven?
  Gloss: Egidius, where are-you remained?
  Translation: Egidius, where have you gone?
  Comment: The negative clitic does not count for V2
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma