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Miya

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: mkf
  latlong: 10.30982,9.845172  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: Kásham təka s-áy
  Translation: Kasham accompanied.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   02_Verb Subject Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: à zar súw zhàak-áy
  Gloss: Pf call Tot donkey-Tot
  Translation: He called a donkey
  Comment: Tot stands for 'totality' but it is not relevant here.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   04_Object Verb No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: Ndùwya a tənzə márdə
  Gloss: Nduya Pf plant millet
  Translation: 'Nyuda planted millet'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   06_Subject Object Verb No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: à dər cáat aa Ndəkay
  Gloss: Pf grind pepper PS Ndəkay
  Translation: 'Ndəkay ground pepper'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   09_Object Subject Verb No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: ənáa zh̀aakə
  Gloss: with donkey
  Translation: 'with a donkey'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: màgǝdza zúw
  Gloss: year-old sorghum.M
  Translation: 'year-old sorghum'
  Comment: This word order is only allowed for some; it is not the regular word order.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
  Words: byàtlama piyám
  Gloss: unripe pumpkin.F
  Translation: 'unripe pumpkin'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: sǝm káràkarana
  Gloss: man.M.SG tall.M.SG
  Translation: 'tall man'
  Comment: "Adjectives constitute a distinct lexical category in two respects: (1) as nominal modifiers, they require gender/number-sensitive suffixes -na (m), -ya (f), -niy (pI); (2) within a noun phrase, they directly follow the head noun with no intervening grammatical morpheme. Noun Adjective is the normal position for adjectives."
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   15_Numeral Noun No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: ám wutǝ
  Gloss: woman.S one
  Translation: 'one woman'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
  Words: tǝvam tsǝr
  Gloss: woman.PL two
  Translation: 'two women'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: nákǝn mbǝrgu
  Gloss: this.M.SG ram.M.SG
  Translation: 'this ram'
  Comment: In their attributive use, demonstratives precede the noun they modify and agree in gender, number and distance. The reference grammar used lists that there are instances in which the dem follows the head noun, these instances most often being in temporal expressions. It also lists that there are cases where the dem follows the noun for rhetorical purposes.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
  Words: táka wún
  Gloss: that.F.SG girl.F.SG
  Translation: 'that girl'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Michael A. Estrada Found only in temporal expressions. Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: mbàda laahə
  Gloss: thigh.F jackal
  Translation: 'thigh of a jackal'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Michael A. Estrada Property values and examples are drawn from Schuh, Russell G. 1988. A Grammar of Miya. University of California Press, vol 130, Berkeley, and were verified for accuracy by Schuh. Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: tləpíy nuwun
  Gloss: leaf.PL my.1SG.M
  Translation: 'my leaves'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: mbǝrgu gárna
  Gloss: ram.M large.M
  Translation: 'large ram'
  Comment: "The normal position for attributive adjectives is directly following the noun. The adjective agrees with the noun in gender/number. For singular nouns, agreement is marked by the suffixes -na (m) or -ya (f). For morphologically plural nouns, the adjective shows agreement by the suffix -niy with 'animate' nouns, but for 'inanimates', agreement is with the lexical gender." (p.257)
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective Not Yet Set Michael A. Estrada Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree Not Yet Set Michael A. Estrada Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Michael A. Estrada Miya does not use 'have' or 'be' as auxiliaries Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: málvə dəenga səb aanduw də báy wùtləmíy niytlən amakaranta
  Gloss: chief say people Qt Sjn take children their school
  Translation: 'the chief told the people to take their children to school'
  Comment: Qt here stands for 'Quote'.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: tá dòo m(a) áa ghə̀ns-úw, míy má d́ma tàwaz-úw
  Gloss: if fall NEG PS "God"-NEG we NEG do planting-NEG
  Translation: 'if it doesn't rain, we won't do the planting.'
  Comment: The PS in the gloss stands for 'Postverbal Subject'. In the text, Schuh states that "relative clauses with internal nominal subjects allow only the postverbal subject ordering" (p.286).
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Extra Examples NA Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Michael A. Estrada Negation in Miya takes the form of two morphemes. The first is a particle that precedes the verb (as shown here) and the second NEG follows an object, indirect object or other predicate element. Forum
  Words: fà ta bǝtá zhaak-uw
  Gloss: you (ms) Neg1 untie donkey-Neg2
  Translation: 'Don't untie the donkey' (p.280)
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Michael A. Estrada In the Perfective, Miya has the particle follow the verb rather than precede. Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix Yes Michael A. Estrada The second negation (Neg2) is a weak morpheme that follows either an object, indirect object or other predicate element. Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: táken gára-má dem
  Gloss: this big-"of" tree
  Translation: 'this big tree'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: níykin cúw rín-niy derbitim
  Gloss: these goats black-pl ten
  Translation: 'These ten black goats'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Michael A. Estrada Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Michael A. Estrada Forum
  Words: níyka dzàhə vaatlee-niy ká
  Gloss: those.PL men.M.PL five-PL
  Translation: 'those five men'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
  Words: níykin cúw dərɓitim
  Gloss: these.PL goats.PL ten
  Translation: 'these ten goats'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Michael A. Estrada Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second NA Michael A. Estrada Forum