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Muyang

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: muy
  latlong: 10.887946,14.154585  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Bebey Théodore References: Bebey Théodore, (2010), Le movement des syntagmes Qu en Muyang. Université de Yaoundé Bebey Théodore, (in progress), The Cartographic Syntax of Muyang: a Chadic Language Spoken in Northern Cameroon. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Yaoundé 1. Forum
  Words: Lawan á zlapáy
  Gloss: Lawan á zlapáy
  Translation: Lawan talks
  Comment: Muyang belongs to Afro-asiatic languages (Central Chadic A, the Biu-Mandara branch and the Wandala-Mafa-Sukur sub-branch) (see Dieu and al.: 1983, Barreteau and al.: 1984, Boutrais and al.: 2000, Seignobos: 2000, Smith: 2006, Gravina and Smith: 2010 and Bebey: 2010). Muyang is the name given both to the language and its approx 30,000 speakers who live in a village called Mouyengue situated in the southern area of Lake Chad, more particularly in the Far North Region of the Republic of Cameroon, division May
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Kra á zláh
  Gloss: Dog 3sg bow
  Translation: A dog bows.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Ahay á adaɗáy
  Gloss: house 3sg shake
  Translation: A house shakes.”
  Comment: See Bebey (2010) for arguments that 3sg is an agreement maker
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 02_Verb Subject No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: * á adaɗáy ahay
  Gloss: 3sg shake house
  Translation: intended: A house is shaking
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Lawan ó zúm ɗaf
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg eat food
  Translation: Lawan eats food.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Shí yam
  Gloss: Shí yam
  Translation: Drink water
  Comment: Objects always follow the verb (declaratives, imperatives)
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   04_Object Verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Lawan ó zum-ába ɗaf-á
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg eat-P2 food-Asp
  Translation: Lawan has eaten food.
  Comment: When the action is accomplished, the language places the aspect indicator clause finally in neutral contexts.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan á ví ɗaf ana Satay
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg give food to Satay
  Translation: Lawan gives food to Satay.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰ * Sati ɗaf é dí
  Gloss: Satai food 3sg cook
  Translation: intended: *SOV
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words:  * Sati é ɗaf dí
  Gloss: Sati 3sg food cook
  Translation: intended SOV -- Sati cooks food
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰ * é dí Satai ɗaf
  Gloss: * 3sg cook Satai food
  Comment: No VSO/ VOS possible
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰* é dí ɗaf Satai
  Gloss: 3sg cook food Satai
  Translation: Cooks food Satai.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: ⃰ é héb^ hay mota
  Gloss: 3sg break house car
  Translation: Car destroys the house
  Comment: NB: bˆ = implosive b.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰ * ɗaf ó zúm
  Gloss: food 3sg eat
  Translation: (intended) Food (he) eats.
  Comment: OK If food is topicalized, and followed by a comma. (cf Bebey, Theodore (2010, 2012)
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰* zum é shí Lawan
  Gloss: Wine 3sg drink Lawan
  Translation: (could only mean infelicitously: wine drinks some Lawn
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: ⃰ * Satai á zeggáë boskur
  Gloss: Satai 3sg hit bicycle
  Translation: ⃰ Cannot mean OVS “A bicycle hits Satai.” Can only mean Satai hits a bicycle
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ana wal
  Gloss: to woman
  Translation: To wife
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Bebey Théodore Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Wal maBlani
  Gloss: Woman beautiful
  Translation: A beautiful woman
  Comment: B= implosive b.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 15_Numeral Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: * zlam awák
  Gloss:  five goats
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: awák zlam
  Gloss: goat.PL five
  Translation: Five goats
  Comment: Plural is marked tonally, or sometmes by reduplication. Bebey, Théodore, (in progress), The Cartographic Syntax of Muyang: a Chadic Language Spoken in Northern Cameroon. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Yaoundé 1.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Awák nday heni
  Gloss: Goats Pl this
  Translation: these goats
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰ * Galu ga awák/ * ga Galu awák
  Gloss: Galu of goats
  Comment: no prenominal posssessors, regardless of form
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Awák ga Galu
  Gloss: Goats of Galu
  Translation: Galu's goats
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰* Goru ahay
  Gloss: my house
  Comment: no prenominal possessors
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Wal gayak
  Gloss: Woman your
  Translation: your wife
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Bebey Théodore Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: ⃰*ɗalɗal zebal
  Gloss: very tall
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Zebal ɗalɗal
  Gloss: tall very
  Translation: very tall
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Bebey Théodore Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Lawan o ɗùm kado Satai ó zúm ɗaf
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg say that Satai 3sg eat food
  Translation: Lawan said that Satai is eating food.”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Lawan á wáy Aicha daɗaba á Bláy
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg like Aicha because 3sg be good
  Translation: Lawan loves Aicha because she is beautiful.”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: daɗaba á Bláy (nahma) Lawan á wáy Aicha
  Gloss: Because 3sg be good Top Lawan 3sg like Aicha
  Translation: Because she is beautiful, Lawan loves Aicha.
  Comment: here the adverbial clause has been topicalized
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Extra Examples NA Bebey Théodore Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Bezza kru tó bú a magma
  Gloss: Children ten 3pl be at home
  Translation: Children ten 3pl be at home “There are ten children at home”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Bezza kru ni tó bú a magma
  Gloss: Children ten DEF 3pl be at home
  Translation: The ten chidren are at home
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Ahay ni
  Gloss: House DEF
  Translation: The house
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Ahay heni ni
  Gloss: House DEM DEF
  Comment: The definite article ni can be absent.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Bebey Théodore Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Bebey Théodore Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Bebey Théodore Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Bebey Théodore Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Lawan ó zúm ɗaf do
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg eat food Neg
  Translation: Lawan does not eat food.
  Comment: Neg is clause final
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: *Heni geɗɗakanii awak
  Gloss: This big goat
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: *Heni awak geɗɗakani
  Gloss: This goat big
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Awak geɗɗakani heni
  Gloss: Goat big-ni this
  Translation: This big goat
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: *Awak heni geɗɗakani
  Gloss: goat this big
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: *geɗɗakani awak heni
  Gloss: Big goat this
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: *heni awák zlam
  Gloss: This goat.PL five
  Comment: Plural is marked tonally, (or sometimes by reduplication) in Muyang and the language is zero indefinite articles. See the following reference:
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: *heni awák zlam
  Gloss: This goat five
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: awák ndeni zlamani
  Gloss: goats this five.ni
  Translation: These five goats
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: * zlam awák heni
  Gloss: five goat this
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words:  Lawan ó zúm ɗaf waw
  Gloss: Lawan 3SG eat foot Q
  Translation: Does Lawan eat food?
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan ó zúm ɗaf do waw
  Gloss: Lawan 3SG east food NEG Q
  Translation: Doesn't Lawan eat food
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Lawan ó zúm ɗaf dó
  Gloss: Lawan 3SG eat food Neg.Q
  Translation: Doesn't Lawan eat food?
  Comment: Negation carries the High tone of the question particle
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: I
  Gloss: yes
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: I Lawan ó zúm ɗaf
  Gloss: yes Lawan eats food
  Translation: yes Lawan eats food
  Comment: I "yes" is compulsary.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Bebey Théodore Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: gevi (nahma) Lawan á gráy
  Gloss: Play (Top) Lawan 3sg do
  Translation: “Play, Lawan does” (approximate translation: the activity of playing is important for Lawan)
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Lawan á gráy gevi yaw
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg do play Int
  Translation: Does Lawan play?
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Nu né shí yam
  Gloss: I 1sg drink water
  Translation: I drink water.
  Comment: The object is not case marked, there is no quantifier like some, a genitive is not possible (unless a noun like half is present:rita ge oslà lit: healk of meat; an adjective like little expressing amount is fine. CHECK translation of: Nu na hepeɗè oslà weley I 1sg eat-P1 meat what “I ate what meat”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: ameɗ a hulukiy-à weyeng ka dav-à
  Gloss: blew 3sg put-P1 sand on terrace-Asp
  Translation: The wind blew sand on my terrace
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Nu né shí yam
  Gloss: 1sg drink water
  Translation: I drink water.”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: John e shè ɗuwa ge meledᵾw-è
  Gloss: John 3sg drink-P1 milk of morning-Asp
  Translation: John drank wine in the morning
  Comment: Asp is perfective
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: John á gráy amal ge olive a vedang gayang-vu
  Gloss: John 3sg do oil of olive at farm his-in
  Translation: John produces oil on his farm.”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Kamkam, fiyú ɗewe ni a frigo-ni-vu
  Gloss: Please put milk def at fridge-def-in
  Translation: Please put the milk in the fridge
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Zuwá yama, nu ná rá nó zukuyá cheese nà
  Gloss: Bring water, I 1sg go 1sg bring cheese def
  Translation: Pass me water, I’ll give you the cheese
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Nu na zayà zum ndata cheese a frigo ni và. Nu no zúm cheese ni, ama ne shì zum ni ndo
  Gloss: I 1sg eat-P1 cheese def, but 1sg drink-P1wine def Neg
  Translation: I ate the cheese, but did’nt drink the wine
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Eweni no sokumà wakit-à
  Gloss: Yersterday, 1sg buy-P1 book-Asp
  Translation: Yesterday I bought a book
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Eweni ne pè kra a dzerni goru-v-à
  Gloss: Yesterday, 1sg see-P1 dog at garden my-in-Asp
  Translation: Yesterday, I saw a dog in my garden
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Mario á wáy ó sokúm ordineter ama é sír weley ge-ni weley ndo
  Gloss: Mario 3sg want 3sg buy computer but 3sg know which of-def which Neg
  Translation: Mario wants to buy computer, but he doesn’t know which one
  Comment: Clausal final negation; contituent structure of which one remains to be figured out
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Ata wakita ndata bic to bú mabehaDani ka tebil ni. Na zày wakita ni, ama ne brìng bic ni.
  Gloss: Pl book and pen 3pl be-P1 put on table def. 1sg take-P1 book def, but 1sg leave pen def.
  Translation: A book and a pen were on the table. I took book, but I left pen
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
  Words: Mo modzò kiyi e djimelvu
  Gloss: 1pl look.P1 moon at telescope-in
  Translation: We watched the moon through a teleskope.
  Comment: Same for subjects: Eweni mlang-melefit dzelata. Yesterday space-god clear. “Yersterday, the sky was clear” (Since there is only one sky, it can never be definite in Muyang.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position Yes Bebey Théodore Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Bebey Théodore Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position Yes Bebey Théodore Forum