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Nahuatl (Central Huasteca)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: nch
  latlong: 20.973793,-98.178635  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: Maria zaniloa
  Gloss: Maria speaks
  Translation: "Maria speaks
  Comment: Language consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: zaniloa Maria
  Gloss: speaks Maria
  Translation: "Maria speaks"
  Comment: Language consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   03_Verb Object Yes John Garcia Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: ni-xochi-chihua
  Gloss: 1SG.S-flower-make
  Translation: "I arrange flowers"
  Comment: Noun incorporation. Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
  Words: ne chichi qui-mictih
  Gloss: that dog 3SG.O-kill.PAST
  Translation: "he killed that dog"
  Comment: Not frequent. Only ok in context: What's going on? Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes John Garcia Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: Juan xochi-chihua
  Gloss: Juan flower-make
  Translation: "Juan arranges flowers"
  Comment: OK with noun incorporation. It's less clear what happens with definite objects. When pressed, I was told this was not frequent, but could be used in a "whats going on" context. Needs to be independently confirmed.
  Contributor: John Garcia
   07_Verb Subject Object Yes John Garcia Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No John Garcia Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No John Garcia Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No John Garcia Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: i-pan i-ilhuih
  Gloss: 3SG.POSS-on 3SG.POSS-festival
  Translation: "on his/her festival"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: no-nacaz-tlan
  Gloss: 1SG.P-ear-Locative
  Translation: ‘Next to me’
  Comment: (lit. on the place of my ear). Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   13_Adjective Noun Yes John Garcia Forum
   14_Noun Adjective Yes John Garcia Forum
   15_Numeral Noun Yes John Garcia Forum
   16_Noun Numeral No John Garcia Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun Yes John Garcia Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative No John Garcia Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: Maria i-chan
  Gloss: Maria 3SG.P-house
  Translation: "Maria's house"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: i-chan Maria
  Gloss: 3SG.p-house Maria
  Translation: "Maria's house"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: no-totol
  Gloss: 1SG.P-turkey
  Translation: "My turkey"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No John Garcia Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: chichi-meh akostik-eh
  Gloss: dog-PL yellow-PL
  Translation: "The yellow dogs"
  Comment: Not all adjectives have a plural form, but those that do require number agreement. LC-Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: akostik-eh ne chichi-meh
  Gloss: yellow-pl those dog-PL
  Translation: ‘those dogs are yellow’
  Comment: Certain predicate adjectives require pluralization (if they have a plural form) for number agreement. Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   A 03_Degree Adjective Yes John Garcia Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree Yes John Garcia Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No John Garcia Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: qu-ihtoh-qui para ni-pobre
  Gloss: 3SG.O-say-PAST COM 1SG.S-poor
  Translation: ‘she said that I am poor’
  Comment: The use of /para/ is optional. It appears /para/ is an overt complementizer, which would distinguish Huasteca Nahuatl with Classical Nahuatl. Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No John Garcia Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes John Garcia Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No John Garcia Forum
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: oncah eyi amochtli no-chan
  Gloss: EXISTENTIAL ‘be’ three books 1SG.P-house
  Translation: "there are three books at my house"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No John Garcia Forum
  Words: nochan oncah amochtli eyi *
  Gloss: 1SG.P-house existential ‘be’ books three
  Translation: "there are three books at my house* "
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: ome cahuayo-meh huahcapantik-eh
  Gloss: two horse-PL tall-PL
  Translation: ‘(the) two horses are tall’
  Comment: Context was given with the phrase "look at those two horses!” Language Consulant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No John Garcia Forum
  Words: yalhwaya ahci-co ama-meh nahui *
  Gloss: yesterday arrived-DIR paper-PL four
  Translation: “the four paper arrived yesterday*”
  Comment: Context was "Maria sent us four papers." Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No John Garcia Forum
  Words: yalhwaya ahci-co nahui ama-meh
  Gloss: yesterday arrived-DIR four paper-PL
  Translation: “the four papers arrived yesterday”
  Comment: The Definite NP lacks a Definite article. Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: xi-nech-illi mas de ne ome burro-s
  Gloss: IMP-1SG.S-tell more of those two burro-PL
  Translation: ‘tell me more about those two burros’
  Comment: Context was "look there, theres two burros!" Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes John Garcia Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No John Garcia Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No John Garcia Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No John Garcia Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No John Garcia Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: Axcanah qui-nequi ma ni-huetzca
  Gloss: NEG 3SG.O-want IMP 1SG.S-laugh
  Translation: ‘he/she doesn’t want me to laugh’
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes John Garcia Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No John Garcia Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No John Garcia Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No John Garcia Forum
  Words: hueyi ne oquichpil
  Gloss: large that boy
  Translation: ‘that boy is large’
  Comment: Although one can say this, this is a clause and not an NP. Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes John Garcia Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes John Garcia Forum
  Words: [Ne tlaca-meh ome], xi-quin-nohnotza
  Gloss: DEM man-PL two IMP-3SG.O-call
  Translation: ‘those two men, call them’
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No John Garcia Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No John Garcia Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No John Garcia Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No John Garcia Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No John Garcia Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes John Garcia Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No John Garcia Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No John Garcia Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes John Garcia Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No John Garcia Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No John Garcia Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No John Garcia Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes John Garcia Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No John Garcia Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes John Garcia Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No John Garcia Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes John Garcia Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes John Garcia Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No John Garcia Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No John Garcia Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No John Garcia Forum