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Nkore-Kiga

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: nyn
  latlong: -0.605675,30.64855  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Arwa Rangwala Data from Charles Taylor, 1985, Nkore-Kiga, (Croom Helms Descriptive Grammars). Taylor descrives Nkore-Kiga as two dialects variantss (Bantu: E13-14) Forum
  Words: ogw'embaata na Iva-kami gu-f[eer]a aho
  Gloss: of duck and Mr-Rabbit it-die-on there
  Translation: Friendship between Duck and Brer Rabbit finished at that point. Friendship between Duck and Brer Rabbit finished at that point. (Omitted noun: omukago, 'friendship) Taylor
  Comment: General background about the language and the source of the data will appear under Description after migration to terraling. Taylor's original transciption and glosses are generally maintained. Comment on example: It is diffcult to find an unaccusative verb with a lexical subject. In the example abovem there is in Taylor's words "an omitted noun: omukago, 'friendship', the reflex of which can be seen in the noun class marker.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: ha-ija abantu babiri
  Gloss: there came two people
  Translation: There arrived two people
  Comment: Taylor 85:115b. "The equivalent to English 'there' is found not only in existential equatives (1.2.1. 1.6.4) but with other verbs. The range of these verbs includes both state verbs and verbs of motion"
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: mbwenu omubyamo ku gw-a-turukire, ha-taaha eifa rihango
  Gloss: now anthrax when it-RP-arise.APPL there-enter famine great
  Translation: 'So when anthrax broke out, there came a great famine.'
  Comment: cf. position of ku (when).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: n-aa-yoreka Mugimba ekitabo
  Gloss: I-TP-show Mugimba book
  Translation:  'I showed Mugimba the book.
  Comment: Taylor (117b). postverbal order V IO DP is fixed. Object clitics yield DO-IO V order.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 04_Object Verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
  Words: n-aa-ki-mw-oreka
  Gloss: I-TP-it-him-show
  Translation: I showed it to him
  Comment: OK for clitics/weak pronouns. Taylor (177b)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: omukama omwambari a-mw-eta a-lJa
  Gloss: king messenger he-him-call he-come
  Translation: The King sent for a messenger to come'
  Comment: Taylor remarks that expections to V O occur, "apparently for stylistic variation rather than for emphasis" This looks like left dislocation.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: n-aa-mu-ha ekitabo/ n-aa-ki-ha Mugimba
  Gloss: I-TP-him-give book/ I-TP-it-give Mugimba
  Translation: I gave him the book/ I gave to to Mugimba
  Comment: either IO or DO can cliticize (or both)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ny-ine ezi-ndi nte
  Gloss: I-have OTHER cows (e.zi-ndi)
  Translation: I have óther cows as well
  Comment: Taylor (211). 1.11.2.3: A few nondescriptive As ("other") precede the N when strongly emphasized, in which case the N does not have its initial vowel (same for prenominal (emphatic) demonstratives). With prenominal emphatic possessive pronouns the N does have its initial vowel (i.e. augment). buri and i bara, both meaning each/every' always precede the N.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: omushaija omu-rungi/ omushaija mu-rungi
  Gloss: o.mu.man o.mu kind / o.mu.man a-kind (Taylor's gloss)
  Translation: the kind person/ a kind person (359a/359b))
  Comment: "the verbless adjective phrase is rare and confined to type (a), the 'pure adjective' of which there are twenty or so. These are definable as lexical items with nominal stems and prefixes, the prefixes being multiply variable to agree with nouns they modify. A definite indefinite contrast dpends on the form of the agreement preceding the A. " (Taylor p. ). [HK: This agreement pattern suggests polydefinitenes/ determiner spreading (the man the kind).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   15_Numeral Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: aboojo ikumi n'om-we
  Gloss: boys ten and one
  Translation: eleven boys
  Comment: Taylor (450a). Cardinal numerals from 'one' to 'five' inclusive have class prefixes concordant with nouns they qualify, and the rest are invariable. In the example above, omwe, agrees for class 1 (singular), (not for class 2, or class 10 (ikumi). Two and above will agree in plural.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: (a-gi-gambira omugabe ku a-gi-mu-tumire ku) a-rikw-enda ku-teeka obugyenyi bw’amamanzi ge
  Gloss: (he-it-tell king how he-it-him-send.M how) he-PC-want to-cook party of heroes his
  Translation: ‘(He told him that the King had sent him to him (to say) that) he wished to throw a party for his warriors.’
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Hilda Koopman Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: a-gi-gambira omugabe ku a-gi-mu-tumire ku a-rikw-enda ku-teeka obugyenyi bw’amamanzi ge
  Gloss: he-it-tell king how he-it-him-send.M how he-PC-want to-cook party of heroes his
  Translation: ‘He told him that the King had sent him to him (to say) that he wished to throw a party for his warriors.’
  Comment: Taylor (5).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ba-a-bona kw-i juka ngu ebyo by-a-kor[w]a
  Gloss: they-TP-see to-remember that these they-TP-do-P
  Translation: ‘They were able to remember that these things had been done.’
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: obu o-riku-uny-ima amaizi aga amabi ny-ine aha marungi
  Gloss: while you-TP-me-grudge water this bad I-have here good
  Translation: 'Although you refuse me this bad water, I have good water here.'
  Comment: Taylor (90b). Intersting order (lit I have here good)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: a-ka-nywa/t-a-ra-nyweire
  Gloss: he-RP-drink/ not-he-RP-drink.M
  Comment:  in the remote past tense (RP) the tense marker and the verb form change (from basic to modified form)under negation
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ti-ba-giire Mbarara
  Gloss: not-they-Y-go Mbarara
  Translation: They did not go to Mbarara (Taylor, 163e)
  Comment: Taylor: Basically the negative particle is ti, the negative copula. This form is also a prefix in verbs, ti-, with a corresponding infix form -ta-. [only for negative imperatives. (163f) o-ta-gura ebitakuri you-not-buy potatoes 'Don't buy potatoes.' ]
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words:  ti-n-diku-manya na kakye
  Gloss: not-I-PC-know at all
  Translation: 'I have no idea at all.'
  Comment: Taylor (167).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: a-nyweire/ t-a-nyweire
  Gloss: he-Y-drink/ not-he-Y-drink
  Translation: he drank / he didn't drink
  Comment: (164a) (164b). In the 'yesterday' tense used in (164a/b) both tense infixes are alike, but in the remote past tense the tense marker and the verb form change under negation (see next example).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Comment: Taylor suggest ti is a contraction of the prefix ta+affirmative copula ni. This makes standard negation basically a negative auxiliary.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: y-aa-bur[w]a emboga z'okur[iis]a oburo
  Gloss: he-TP-lose-P of relish eating-with millet
  Translation: He had no relish to go with his millet.'
  Comment: (165) Negation can also be introduced in effect by choice of verb. This is not sufficient to yield a yes value (i.e. just as English lack or deny does not yield a yes value for this property either)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: n-ta-riku-mu-reeba
  Gloss: I-not-PC-him-see (or: 'I not seeing him' in effect)
  Translation: '(if) I didn't see him'
  Comment: Taylor (164e). With participial and other dependent verb-forms, the negative particle follows the subject agreement marker. This may be pretheoretically called an infix (but then French ne would have to classified as an infix as well, if SA markers are basically equivalent to Romance subject clitics. This question does not really arise since these are participial, gerundive contexts, not standard declarative clause (i.e the definition does not apply.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ti-ha-ri-ho n'omwe o-kora ekyo
  Gloss: not-there-be-there and one who-do that
  Translation: 'Nobody does that.'
  Comment: Taylor 166a. cf There are no negative NPs like noone, nothing etc
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Arwa Rangwala Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Arwa Rangwala Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum