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Nupe

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: nup
  latlong: 9.05,5.966667  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Elugi fu
  Gloss: bird fly
  Translation: The bird flew.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Ngba Musa gi bise
  Gloss: Q Musa eat hen
  Translation: 'Did Musa eat the hen?'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 02_Verb Subject No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Fu elugi.
  Gloss: fly bird
  Translation: The bird flew.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa e ba nakan.
  Gloss: Musa PRS cut meat
  Translation: Musa is cutting the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa e gi nakan.
  Gloss: Musa PRS eat meat
  Translation: Musa is eating the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa a nakan ba.
  Gloss: Musa PRF meat cut
  Translation: Musa has cut the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa e ba nakan.
  Gloss: Musa PRS cut meat
  Translation: Musa is cutting the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa a nakan ba.
  Gloss: Musa PRV meat cut
  Translation: Musa has cut the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Gi Musa nakan.
  Gloss: eat Musa meat
  Translation: Musa ate the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Gi nakan Musa.
  Gloss: eat meat Musa
  Translation: Musa ate the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Nakan Musa ba.
  Gloss: meat Musa cut
  Translation: Musa cut the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Nakan e ba Musa.
  Gloss: meat PRS cut Musa
  Translation: Musa is cutting the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: daga Nigeria
  Gloss: from Nigeria
  Translation: from Nigeria
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: be ebi yin
  Gloss: with knife INS
  Translation: 'with a knife'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa a ci kata o
  Gloss: Musa PRV lie house LOC
  Translation: Musa has lied down in the house.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 13_Adjective Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Dzuru eci
  Gloss: red yam
  Translation: red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: eci dzuru
  Gloss: yam red
  Translation: red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 15_Numeral Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Nini egi
  Gloss: one child
  Translation: one child
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: egi nini
  Gloss: child one
  Translation: one child
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Dzuru eci
  Gloss: red yam
  Translation: red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *Ga eci
  Gloss: DEM yam
  Translation: that yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: eci nana
  Gloss: yam DEM
  Translation: this yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Musa nangi
  Gloss: Musa goat
  Translation: Musa's goat
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Nangi Musa
  Gloss: goat Musa
  Translation: Musa's goat
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: eci wun
  Gloss: yam 3.sg
  Translation: 'His/her yam'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Eci-zi dzuru-zi woncinko-zi
  Gloss: yam-PL red-PL large-PL
  Translation: Large red yams
  Comment: example is acceptable if plural marking on adjectives is dropped.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective NA Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa á gan tó.
  Gloss: Musa PRV more tall
  Translation: Musa is too tall.
  Comment: Comment (1) *Musa á tó gan. Comment (2) The perfective particle is obligatory whenever the degree modifier 'gan' is used. Comment (3) tó is a verb.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ A 04_Adjective Degree NA Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa tó kun.
  Gloss: Musa tall sufficient
  Translation: Musa is tall enough.
  Comment: *Musa kun tó. Note: tó is a verb.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa kpe ganan etsu du nakan.
  Gloss: Musa know COMP chief cook meat
  Translation: Musa knows that the chief cooked the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa gbin-gan ko etsu du nakan.
  Gloss: Musa loose-say COMP chief cook meat
  Translation: Musa asked whether the chief cooked the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: U be ke etsu ma nakan du na.
  Gloss: 3 seem COMP chief know meat cook COMP
  Translation: It seems that the chief knows how to cook meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: nakan na etsu du na
  Gloss: meat REL COMP chief cook REL COMP
  Translation: the meat that the chief cooked
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: ...ebogao, Musa si nakan.
  Gloss: therefore/because of that, Musa buy meat
  Translation: ...therefore, Musa bought meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *...Musa si nakan ebogao.
  Gloss: Musa buy meat therefore
  Translation: ...therefore, Musa bought meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: takun-zi guta ya
  Gloss: rock-pl three fall
  Translation: 'Three rocks fell.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: eci guwo nana-zi ya
  Gloss: yam ten DEM-PL fall
  Translation: 'These ten yams fell.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: ekungunci-zi guta-ta a tsu
  Gloss: warrior-PL three-RED PRF die
  Translation: 'All (the) three warriors have died.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: eci guwo nana-zi ya
  Gloss: yam ten DEM-PL fall
  Translation: 'These ten yams fell.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: ekungunci-zi guta-ta a tsu
  Gloss: warrior-PL three-RED PRF die
  Translation: 'All (the) three warriors have died.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa e (/) ba nakan a.
  Gloss: Musa PRS NEG cut meat NEG
  Translation: 'Musa isn't cutting the meat.'
  Comment: (/) is the pre-verbal negative morpheme whose exponent is a floating High tone. The other negative particle, 'a', follows the verb+object and bears a Low tone.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa e (/) ba nakan a.
  Gloss: Musa PRS Neg cut meat Neg
  Translation: 'Musa isn't cutting the meat.'
  Comment: (/) is the pre-verbal negative morpheme whose exponent is a floating High tone. The other negative particle, 'a', follows the verb+object and bears a Low tone.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa e (/) ba nakan a.
  Gloss: Musa PRS NEG cut meat NEG
  Translation: 'Musa isn't cutting the meat.'
  Comment: Negation is a two-part morpheme in Nupe. The pre-verbal morpheme is tonal (surfacing as a floating High tone), while the post-VP piece is the Low tone-bearing morpheme 'a'.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *nana dzuru eci
  Gloss: DEM red yam
  Translation: this red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Nana eci dzuru
  Gloss: DEM yam red
  Translation: this red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: eci dzuru nana
  Gloss: yam red DEM
  Translation: this red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *eci nana dzuru
  Gloss: yam DEM red
  Translation: this red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Dzuru nana eci
  Gloss: red DEM yam
  Translation: this red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: *Dzuru eci nana
  Gloss: red yam DEM
  Translation: this red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: eci guwo nana-zi
  Gloss: yam ten DEM-PL
  Translation: these ten yams
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa gi bise ko
  Gloss: Musa eat hen Q
  Translation: Did Musa eat the hen?
  Comment: In addition to using the sentence final particle 'ko', it is possible to achieve a polar question by lengthening the final vowel of the sentence. Thus, an alternative way to ask the question above would be: 'Musa gi bise:' (where the nucleus of the final syllable [se] is lengthened)
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Speaker A: Ngba Musa gi bise? Speaker B: Eba.
  Gloss: Speaker A: Q Musa eat hen. Speaker B: Yes
  Translation: Speaker A: 'Did Musa eat the hen?' Speaker B: 'Yes'.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Speaker A: Ngba Musa gi bise? Speaker B: Haha.
  Gloss: Speaker A: Q Musa eat hen. Speaker B: No
  Translation: Speaker A: Did Musa eat the hen? Speaker B: No.
  Comment: The particle 'haha' is unique to negative answers. Sentential negation is marked by way of sentence-final 'a', not 'haha'. e.g: 'Musa gi bise a.' "Musa did not eat the hen". *'Musa gi bise haha.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Speaker A: Wo: gan ya mi: le ganan yegi wo: lo Bida. Gbani mi: le u: ye abo. Ngba wun lo Bida a? Speaker B: Eba.
  Gloss: Speaker A: 2.sg say give 1.sg earlier COMP brother 2.sg go Bida. Now 1.sg see 3.sg eye here. Q 3.sg go Bida NEG
  Translation: Speaker A: You told me earlier that your brother went to Bida. Now I see him here. Did he not go to Bida? Speaker B: Yes (meaning "he did not go to Bida").
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Speaker A: Ngba Musa gi bise a? Speaker B: Eba. Musa gi bise ni:.
  Gloss: Speaker A: Q Musa eat hen NEG. Speaker B: Yes. Musa eat hen emphatic particle
  Translation: Speaker A: Did Musa not eat the hen? Speaker B: Yes. Musa DID INDEED eat the hen.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ma Musa ewo
  Gloss: 1.sg lend Musa money
  Translation: I lent Musa money
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ma Musa ewo
  Gloss: 1.sg lend Musa money
  Translation: I lent Musa money
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa gi nyagici
  Gloss: Musa eat food
  Translation: Musa ate the food
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa gi nyagici
  Gloss: Musa eat food
  Translation: Musa ate the food
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ka wosika
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter
  Translation: I wrote a letter
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ka wosika
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter
  Translation: I wrote a letter
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ka wosika nini
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter one
  Translation: I wrote a letter.
  Comment: Can also be interpreted literally as: 'I wrote one letter.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ka wosika
  Gloss: 1st.sg write letter
  Translation: I wrote a letter
  Comment: Can't mean: 'I wrote letters'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa wu nanko
  Gloss: Musa beat cow
  Translation: Musa beat the cow
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa wu nanko
  Gloss: Musa beat cow
  Translation: Musa beat the cow.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa wu nanko nana
  Gloss: Musa beat cow DEM
  Translation: Musa beat this cow.
  Comment: Possible in the context: 'I saw two goats and a cow. Musa beat __ cow.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ka wosika-zi
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter-PL
  Translation: I wrote letters.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Mi ka wosika-zi
  Gloss: 1.sg write letter-PL
  Translation: I wrote letters.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa pa eci-zi
  Gloss: Musa pound yam-PL
  Translation: Musa pounded the yams.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa pa eci-zi
  Gloss: Musa pounded yam-PL
  Translation: Musa pounded the yams.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
+ w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Jason Kandybowicz Forum
  Words: Musa pa eci-zi nana
  Gloss: Musa pound yam-PL DEM
  Translation: Musa pounded these yams.
  Comment: Possible in the context: 'I saw several yams. Musa pounded __ yams.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz