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Old Saxon

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: osx
  latlong: 53.079296,8.801694  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: Iohannes quam an liudeo lioht
  Gloss: John came to people.GEN light
  Translation: John came into the world
  Comment: (Heliand 198-199)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 02_Verb Subject No George Walkden Clauses with this order are not infrequent, but assumed to be non-neutral. See section 3.3 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: Skrêd the uuintar forđ
  Gloss: moved the winter forth
  Translation: The winter progressed
  Comment: (Heliand 197)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 03_Verb Object Yes George Walkden Both VO and OV are attested in Old Saxon, without clear information-structural differences. See Walkden, George (2014). Object position and Heavy NP Shift in Old Saxon and beyond. In Kristin Bech & Kristine G. Eide (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in Germanic and Romance languages, 313–340. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Forum
  Words: that hie muosti alôsian thena lîkhamon Cristes fan themo crûcie
  Gloss: that he must retrieve the.ACC body.ACC Christ.GEN from the cross
  Translation: that he must retrieve Christ's body from the cross
  Comment: (Heliand 5724-5725)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 04_Object Verb Yes George Walkden Both VO and OV are attested in Old Saxon, without clear information-structural differences. See Walkden, George (2014). Object position and Heavy NP Shift in Old Saxon and beyond. In Kristin Bech & Kristine G. Eide (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in Germanic and Romance languages, 313–340. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Forum
  Words: that sia thia ferahquâla frummian scoldun
  Gloss: that they the.ACC life-pain.ACC do.INF should
  Translation: that they should carry out the painful act
  Comment: (Heliand 5396)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: that ênig liudeo ni scal farfolgan is friunde
  Gloss: that any people.GEN NEG should follow.INF his friend.DAT
  Translation: that any of the people should follow his friend
  Comment: (Heliand 1492-1493)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes George Walkden Rare in main clauses, but common in subordinate clauses. See section 3.4 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: Sum mann thann midfiri mên farlâtid
  Gloss: some men.NOM then middle-aged crime.ACC abandon
  Translation: Some men give up crime when they are middle-aged
  Comment: (Heliand 3476)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No George Walkden Clauses with this order are not infrequent, but assumed to be non-neutral. See section 3.3 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: Lêdid up thanen hêr heƀencuning thea hluttaron theoda
  Gloss: leads up thence high.NOM heaven-king.NOM the.ACC pure.ACC people.ACC
  Translation: The high king of heaven will lead the pure people there
  Comment: (Heliand 4448-4449)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   08_Verb Object Subject No George Walkden Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No George Walkden Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No George Walkden Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes George Walkden This is the standard order. Forum
  Words: that he it gio an is hertan gehugda
  Gloss: that he it ever in his heart believed
  Translation: that he ever believed it in his heart
  Comment: (Heliand 2505)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes George Walkden Rare, mainly with pronominal NPs. I'm not aware of any systematic study of this property. Forum
  Words: Thô geng im tô the landes uuard
  Gloss: then went him.DAT to the.NOM land.GEN ward.GEN
  Translation: Then the lord of the land went to him
  Comment: (Heliand 3155)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes George Walkden This is the most frequent order. Forum
  Words: ên ôdag man
  Gloss: a/one rich man
  Translation: a rich man
  Comment: (Heliand 3327)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: uuallos hôha
  Gloss: walls high
  Translation: high walls
  Comment: (Heliand 3699)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: threa man
  Gloss: three men
  Translation: three men
  Comment: (Heliand 593)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: mid them thegnun thrim
  Gloss: with the.DAT thanes.DAT three.DAT
  Translation: with the three men
  Comment: (Heliand 3112)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: oƀar al thit landskepi
  Gloss: over all this country
  Translation: over this whole country
  Comment: (Heliand 2441)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   18_Noun Demonstrative No George Walkden Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: godes êgan barn
  Gloss: god.GEN own child
  Translation: God's own child
  Comment: (Heliand 3085)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: that hôha hûs heƀancuninges
  Gloss: the high house heaven-king.GEN
  Translation: God's house
  Comment: (Heliand 5575)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: oƀar is hôƀde
  Gloss: over 3SG.GEN head.DAT
  Translation: over his head
  Comment: (Heliand 5558)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: uuilleon mînes
  Gloss: will 1SG.GEN
  Translation: my will
  Comment: (Heliand 3100)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: endi sagdun iro gôdumu hêrron
  Gloss: and said their.DAT good.DAT.M.SG lord.DAT.M.SG
  Translation: and said to their good lord
  Comment: (Heliand 2821)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes George Walkden Some gender neutralization occurs. See Hock, Hans Henrich (2009). Default, animacy, avoidance. In Vit Bubenik, John Hewson & Sarah Rose (eds.), Grammatical Change in Indo-European Languages, 29–42. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Forum
  Words: that thia muoder thes mendendia sind
  Gloss: that the.NOM.F.PL mothers.NOM.F.PL that.GEN glad.NOM.PL are
  Translation: that the mothers are glad of that
  Comment: (Heliand 5526)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: that thar io sô hêlag ni uuarđ têcan gitôgid
  Gloss: that there ever so holy NEG became sign showed
  Translation: that such a holy sign had never been shown
  Comment: (Heliand 5679-5680)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   A 04_Adjective Degree No George Walkden Although Old Saxon has the adjective ginôg 'enough', it is not attested as a degree modifier to an adjective in the Heliand. Forum
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes George Walkden See Arnett, Carlee (1997). Perfect auxiliary selection in the Old Saxon Heliand. American Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Literatures 9, 23-72. Forum
  Words: endi thiu fîƀi uuârun agangan
  Gloss: and the five were gone
  Translation: and the five had gone
  Comment: (Heliand 47)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: he is lîƀes haƀad mid is uuordun faruuerkod
  Gloss: he his body.GEN has with his words forfeited
  Translation: by his words he has forfeited his body
  Comment: (Heliand 4823-4824)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: Hiet man, that alla thea elilendiun man iro ôđil sôhtin
  Gloss: ordered one that all the foreign men their homeland sought
  Translation: It was commanded that all foreigners should visit their homeland
  Comment: (Heliand 345-346)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No George Walkden Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: That gêr furđor skrêd, untthat that friđubarn godes fiartig habda dago endi nahto
  Gloss: the year further went until the peace-child god.GEN forty had days.GEN and nights.GEN
  Translation: The year went on, until the child of God was forty days old
  Comment: (Heliand 449–451)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No George Walkden Forum
+ Extra Examples Yes George Walkden These examples illustrate the rare but possible option of null subjects in Old Saxon, particularly in main clauses and in the third person. See section 5.2.5 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: Giuuitun im thô eft te Hierusalem iro sunu sôkean
  Gloss: went REFL.DAT to Jerusalem their son seek.INF
  Translation: They then went to Jerusalem to seek their son
  Comment: (Heliand 806-807)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: lîbes uueldi ina bilôsien, of he mahti gilêstien sô
  Gloss: life.GEN would him take if he could achieve so
  Translation: he would take his life if he could
  Comment: (Heliand 1142)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: Thar sâtun tuênie man bi uuege
  Gloss: there sat two.NOM men.NOM by way.DAT
  Translation: There two men sat by the road
  Comment: (Heliand 3548)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: huuô hîr uuegos tuêna liggead an thesumu liohte
  Gloss: how here ways.NOM two.NOM lie in this.DAT light.DAT
  Translation: how there are two ways in this world
  Comment: (Heliand 1771-1772)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: that sie the êno man sô alla uueldi uuerod faruuinnen
  Gloss: that them the one man so all would people win.INF
  Translation: that that one man would win all the people
  Comment: (Heliand 4175-4176)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: Than aftar theru menegi gengun Iohannes endi Petrus, thie gumon tuên
  Gloss: then after the.DAT crowd.DAT went John and Peter the men.NOM two.NOM
  Translation: Then John and Peter, the two men, went after the crowd
  Comment: (Heliand 4936–4937)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes George Walkden Demonstratives and definite articles seem to have the same form in Old Saxon. I am not aware of any systematic study of the stage of grammaticalization of these demonstratives. Forum
  Words: Iacob endi Iohannes, thea gumon tuêne
  Gloss: James and John the men two
  Translation: James and John, the two men
  Comment: (Heliand 3109)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes George Walkden Demonstratives and definite articles seem to have the same form in Old Saxon. I am not aware of any systematic study of the stage of grammaticalization of these demonstratives. Forum
  Words: Thuo ên thero tueliƀio, Thuomas gimâlda
  Gloss: then one the/those.GEN twelve.GEN Thomas said
  Translation: Then one of the/those twelve, Thomas, said ...
  Comment: (Heliand 3992-3993)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No George Walkden Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No George Walkden Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No George Walkden Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No George Walkden Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No George Walkden Unclear from manuscripts whether ni is a particle or a prefix. I have treated it as prefixal as it immediately precedes the verb and contracts with the form "is". Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No George Walkden Forum
+ Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes George Walkden I have treated ni as a prefix, since it immediately precedes the verb and contracts with the form "is". For details of negation in Old Saxon see Breitbarth, Anne (2013). Negation in the history of Low German and Dutch. In David Willis, Christopher Lucas and Anne Breitbarth (eds.), The history of negation in the languages of Europe and the Mediterranean, vol. 1: Case studies, 190-238. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: huand gi mi ni hulpun
  Gloss: because you me NEG helped
  Translation: because you did not help me
  Comment: (Heliand 4423)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: huuand imu nis biholan neouuiht
  Gloss: because him.DAT NEG-is concealed nothing
  Translation: because nothing is concealed to him
  Comment: (Heliand 1577)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No George Walkden Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No George Walkden Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: thea hêlagon tîdi
  Gloss: the.ACC holy.ACC times.ACC
  Translation: the holy period(s)
  Comment: (Heliand 4202)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: that gethuing mikil
  Gloss: that need great
  Translation: that great need
  Comment: (Heliand 4317)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No George Walkden Forum
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: godspell that guoda
  Gloss: gospel.ACC the.ACC good.ACC
  Translation: the good gospel
  Comment: (Heliand 25)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No George Walkden Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No George Walkden Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: that sie the êno man sô alla uueldi uuerod faruuinnen
  Gloss: that them the one man so all would people win.INF
  Translation: that that one man would win all the people
  Comment: (Heliand 4175-4176)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: thea gesuester tuô
  Gloss: the sisters two
  Translation: the two sisters
  Comment: (Heliand 4108)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No George Walkden Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No George Walkden Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No George Walkden Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No George Walkden Forum
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No George Walkden Two examples exist in the Heliand of hweđar acting as a Q-marker in a direct polar question. See section 4.4.2 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: hueđer thu that fan thi selƀumu sprikis ... the it thi ôđre hêr erlos sagdun
  Gloss: whether you that from you self speak or it you other here men told
  Translation: Is that what you yourself say, or what others have told you?
  Comment: (Heliand 5207-5208)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: huueđer lêdiad gi uundan gold te geƀu huilicun gumuno?
  Gloss: whether lead you wound gold to gift.DAT which.DAT men.GEN
  Translation: To whom are you taking wound gold as a gift?
  Comment: (Heliand 554–555) The structure of this example is unclear.
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No George Walkden Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No George Walkden Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No George Walkden Forum
+ Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes George Walkden There are seven examples of this in the Heliand. Forum
  Words: bist thu than thoh Elias
  Gloss: are you then though Elias
  Translation: So are you Elijah?
  Comment: (Heliand 920)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: uuêst thu that te uuâron
  Gloss: know you that to truth.DAT
  Translation: Do you truly know that?
  Comment: (Heliand 5350)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes George Walkden There is only one example of this in the Heliand, but no reason to doubt that this is how polar questions are formed when auxiliaries are present. Forum
  Words: ni mugun samad mid mi uuacon êne tîd
  Gloss: NEG may together with me wake.INF one tide
  Translation: Won't you stay awake with me for a while?
  Comment: (Heliand 4777-4778)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No George Walkden Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes George Walkden Only one example in the Heliand, but no other examples of affirmative answers. Forum
  Words: queđe iâ, gef it sî
  Gloss: say yes, if it is.SBJV
  Translation: Say "yes" if it is (true)
  Comment: (Heliand 1522)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No George Walkden Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No George Walkden Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No George Walkden Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No George Walkden Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No George Walkden Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No George Walkden Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No George Walkden Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes George Walkden Only one example in the Heliand, but no other examples of negative answers. Forum
  Words: queđe nên, af it nis
  Gloss: say no if it NEG-is
  Translation: Say "no" if it is not (true)
  Comment: (Heliand 1523)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No George Walkden Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No George Walkden Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation NA George Walkden No examples in textual record. Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation NA George Walkden No examples in textual record. Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle NA George Walkden No examples in textual record. Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle NA George Walkden No examples in textual record. Forum
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second Yes George Walkden V2 is the dominant word order in Old Saxon main clauses. See section 3.2 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: Mattheus uuas he hêtan
  Gloss: Matthew was he called
  Translation: He was called Matthew
  Comment: (Heliand 1192)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second Yes George Walkden In almost all cases. See section 4.2 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forum
  Words: huî uuilliad gi sô slâpen?
  Gloss: why want you so sleep.INF
  Translation: Why do you want to sleep so?
  Comment: (Heliand 4777)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: thar fîđad sie meti te kôpe
  Gloss: there find they food to buy.DAT
  Translation: there they will find food to buy
  Comment: (Heliand 2826)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No George Walkden Forum
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes George Walkden Genitive case is a possibility here. Forum
  Words: thoh hi thurh minnea godes manno huilicumu uuilleandi fargeƀe uuatares drinkan
  Gloss: though he through love God.GEN men.GEN each.DAT willing forgive.SBJV water.GEN drink.INF
  Translation: though he, through God's love, willingly forgives each man for drinking water
  Comment: (Heliand 1964-1965)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No George Walkden I haven't found any examples of this, but they may exist (they do in Old English, and there are no studies of the nominal domain in Old Saxon). Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes George Walkden Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No George Walkden Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: that thar the hêlogo Crist an themu hûse innan têcan uuarhte
  Gloss: that there the holy Christ in the house inside sign worked
  Translation: that there, inside the house, Jesus worked a miracle
  Comment: (Heliand 2068-2069)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No George Walkden Forum
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: thar mugun gi ênan man sehan
  Gloss: there may you.PL INDF.ACC man see.INF
  Translation: there you may see a man
  Comment: (Heliand 4535)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No George Walkden Forum
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: Sie gibod lêstun
  Gloss: they command performed
  Translation: They followed his command
  Comment: (Heliand 2258)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes George Walkden Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No George Walkden Forum
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes George Walkden Forum
  Words: al sô git hîr an Iordanes strôme fiscos fâhat
  Gloss: all so you.DU here in Jordan.GEN stream.DAT fish.PL catch
  Translation: as you catch fish here in the River Jordan
  Comment: (Heliand 1159-1160)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No George Walkden Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No George Walkden Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No George Walkden I haven't found any examples of this, but they may exist (they do in Old English, and there are no studies of the nominal domain in Old Saxon). Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes George Walkden Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No George Walkden Forum