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Oluwanga (Eji)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: wan
  latlong: 0.413979,34.438298  Map it!
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+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Ceciliane Odangah ALS4 SSWL workshop 2016. Forum
  Words: Naliaka y-a-tsia
  Gloss: Naliaka 3sg.SA-PST-go
  Translation: Naliaka went
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   02_Verb Subject No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   03_Verb Object Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   04_Object Verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Naliaka y-a-rera a-ma-tsi
  Gloss: Naliaka 3sg-PST- bring AUG-C6-water
  Translation: Naliaka brought water
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria y-a-lola i-ndege
  Gloss:  Maria 3sg.SA-PST-see C9-airplane
  Translation: Maria saw the airplane
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   06_Subject Object Verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd-a-tsi-re khu-sukuli
  Gloss: 1sg-PST-go-PST Prep-school
  Translation: I went to school
  Comment: a-V-re: recent past
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   13_Adjective Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: O-mu-ana o-mu-layi
  Gloss: AUG-C1.SA-child AUG-SA-good
  Translation: a good child
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   15_Numeral Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Ma-embe ka-taru
  Gloss: C6-mango SA-three
  Translation: Three mangoes
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Tsi- ngubo tsi-biri tsi-mali tsi-ndai
  Gloss: 10-dress 10-two 10-black 10-nice
  Translation: Two nice black dresses
  Comment: order: N Num Color Quality
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: a-ba-ana a-bo
  Gloss: AUG-C2-child SA-DEM
  Translation: Those children
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   19_Possessor Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd-a-menya mu-nzu mwa o- mwitsa wanje
  Gloss: 1sg-SA-live Prep-house Prep AUG-friend mine
  Translation: ‘ I live in the house of my friend’
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: I-kofia ya John
  Gloss:  C9-hat 9.a John
  Translation: John's hat
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: I- nzu ya-nje /I- nzu ya -o/ I- nzu ya -ye/ Tsi-nzu tsia-nje/10) I- nzu ya-bu
  Gloss: 9-house 9.a-1sg/9-house 9.a-2/9-house 9.a-3/10.house 10.a-1st/ 10.house 10.a-3rd
  Translation: My house/ your house/hishouse//my houses/their houses
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: I-ngubo i - mali i- ndai
  Gloss: 9-dress 9- black 9-nice
  Translation: A nice black dress
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: I-ngubo i-no ni i-mali
  Gloss: C9-dress Agr-this is Agr-black
  Translation: This dress is black
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Tsi-ngubo tsi-no ni tsi-mali
  Gloss: c10-dress 10-these are 10-black
  Translation: These dresses are black
  Comment: Black shows plural agreement/concord
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: I-ngubo i-khongo kho
  Gloss: 9-dress 9-big very
  Translation: A very big dress
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: I-ngubo i-khongo muno / I-ngubo i-khongo munomuno/
  Gloss: 9-dress 9-big too/9-dress 9-big extremely
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd- a- bola mbu John y - a- tsia
  Gloss: 1sg-PST- say that 3sg.SA-PST-leave
  Translation: I said that John left
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd –a- soma khubera nd-enya-nga khu-bura
  Gloss: 1sg-PST-read because 1sg-want-PST INFIN-pass
  Translation: ‘ I read because I wanted to pass’
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Extra Examples No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: E - fi- sala fi-taru fi -li mu-nzu
  Gloss: AUG-8-chair 8-three 8-are LOC-house
  Translation: There are three chairs in the house’
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Y –a -rera tsi-barua tsi-taru tsi-lya
  Gloss: 3sg-PST-bring Agree.-letter Agree.-three Agree-Dem
  Translation: 3sg-PST-bring 10-letter 10.-three 10-Dem
  Comment: tsilya’is a special kind of demonstrative that shows definiteness/familarity. It is different from the demonstrative pronoun ‘those’ used to point out things
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Y-a-lera e-fi-sala fi-taru fi-lya erwanyi
  Gloss: 1sg-PST-bring AUG-C8 8-three 8-DEM outside
  Translation: S/he brought the three chairs outside
  Comment: The unmarked dem shows the definiteness.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Maria si -y -a -shina tawe
  Gloss: Maria NEG-3sg.SA PST-dance NEG
  Translation: Mria didn't dance
  Comment: tawe is VP/clause final
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria si-y-a-rer-ire a-matsi asi itsuli tawe
  Gloss: Maria NEG-SA-PST-put-PST C6-water down morning NEG
  Translation: Maria did not put the water on the ground this morning
  Comment: tawe is clause final in simple sentences.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria si-y-a-tsia mu-mwalo tawe khubera ni ale
  Gloss:  NEG-SA-PST-go LOC-river NEG because is far
  Translation: Maria did not go to the river because it is far'.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Maria si -y -a -shina tawe
  Gloss: Maria NEG-3sg.SA PST-dance NEG
  Translation: Maria didn't dance
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: O -mu -khana mwimbikiti o-yo
  Gloss: AUG-C1-girl 1- short AUG1- DEM
  Translation: That short girl
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: A -ba-khana ba-taru a-b.o
  Gloss: AUG-2-girl 2.-three AUG-2.DEM
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: O-li weshiigwa?
  Gloss: 2sg-be crazy
  Translation: Are you crazy?
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: O –lomaloma-nga lusungu?
  Gloss: 2sg-speak-HAB. English
  Translation: Do you speak English?
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Question: O –lomaloma-nga lusungu? Answer : eeh
  Gloss: Do you speak English? yes
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Question: O –lomaloma-nga lusungu? Answer: ata (Si-e-lomaloma-nga lusungu tawe.)
  Gloss: NEG-1sg-speak-HAB. English NEG
  Translation: Do you speak English? No. I don't speak English.
  Comment: ata looks somewhat related to tawe, not to si.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: O –lomaloma-nga lusungu? tawe (Si-e-lomaloma-nga lusungu tawe.)
  Gloss: Do you speak English? tawe (=no) /*si / *si tawe
  Translation: Do you speak English? No.
  Comment: tawe can be so used (but not si, nor si tawe)
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: John a-nyw-ere a- ma -bere itsuli.
  Gloss: John PST-drink-PST AUG- C6 -milk morning
  Translation: John drank milk in the morning
  Comment: Only in In recent past, 3rdsg y- is absent. y shows up in yesterday past (both recent past and yesterday past use the prefix a- and suffix .re. Y- is also obligatory with the far away PST a-, which combines with V_FV.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: O- mu -yeka kweya o- mu -yeshe mu- mu -taro kwa-nje
  Gloss: AUG- C3 -wind SA. blew AUG- C3 -sand LOC - C3 -terrace ku.a-1sg
  Translation: The wind blew sand on my terrace.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -a -kul-ire e-shi-tabu mungolobe.
  Gloss:  1sg -PST-buy-PST AUG- C7 -book yesterday
  Translation: I bought a book yesterday
  Comment: a(=PSTt) and -ire(+PST) equals recent past
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nochama, busia i-chuvi
  Gloss: Please, pass C9 -salt
  Translation: Please pass the salt
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nochama, ra a- ma -bere (ako) mu-i-furiji.
  Gloss: Please, put AUG- C6 -milk a.DEM LOC- C9 -fridge
  Translation: Please, put the milk in the fridge.
  Comment: The demonstrative ‘ that ’ is not compulsory. However, some Oluwanga speakers might use it to show definiteness. It is unclear if w02c should be set to yes or no. I choose yes.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd -e -nya khu-kula o- mu -toka
  Gloss: 1sg-FUT-want INFIN-buy AUG- C3-car
  Translation: I want to buy a car
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd -a-bukan-ire nende o-m-khana nende O- mu -sian. Nd -a -lang-ire o- mu -khana (oyo)
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -meet-PST with AUG- C2 -girl and AUG- C6 -boy. sg- PST -call- PST AUG- C2 -girl DEM
  Translation: I met a girl and a boy. I called the girl.
  Comment: see the comment under Baasa (w04c): a similar distribution may hold in Oluwanga, but further work is necessary to confirm this. .
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words:  Nd -a -bukan-ire nende o- mu -siani nende o- mu -khana. N-e-langa o- mu -khana.
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -meet-PST with AUG- C1 -boy and AUG- C1 -girl
  Translation: I met with a boy and a girl. I called the girl. I-PST-call AUG- C6 -girl.
  Comment: I called the girl.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Mungolobe, nd -a-bukan-ire nende a- ba -somi
  Gloss: Yesterday, 1sg-PST-meet-PST with AUG- C2 -student
  Translation: Yesterday, I met students
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Mungulobe, nd -a -kul-ire e- fi -tabu
  Gloss:  Yesterday, 1sg-PST-buy-PST AUG- C8 -book
  Translation: I bought books yesterday.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -a-lola tsi-mbwa mu - mu -kunda kwa-nje
  Gloss: 1sg- PST - see C10-dog LOC- C3 -garden ku.a-1sg
  Translation: I saw dogs in my garden
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -a-bukula tsi-kalamu tsio-nyone
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -take C10-pen Agree.- alone
  Translation: I took only the books
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd -a-bukan-ire nende a- ba -siani ba-taru nende O- mu -khana. Nd -a-lang-ire a- ba -siani (abo)
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -meet-PST with AUG- C2 -boy 2.-three and AUG- C6 -girl. 1st-PST-call-PST AUG-2-boy (DEM)
  Translation: I met three boys and a girl. I called the boys
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: John y-a-lola o-mwesi
  Gloss: SA - PST -see AUG-moon
  Translation: John saw the moon
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: I-baluni yola mwikulu /
  Gloss: C9 -balloon reached LOC.NC. sky
  Translation: The balloon reached the sky
  Comment: In the locative, the AUG seems to be generally absent. This is independent of the definite indefinite reading of direct objects.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd -a-lola Naliaka
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -see Naliaka
  Translation: I saw Naliaka.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd -a-lola John o- mu -khongo
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -see AUG-1-big
  Translation: I saw big John
  Comment: Proper names are not preceded by the augment, though common nouns which have NC are.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd -a-langa Mary o- mu -titi
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -call AUG-Agree.-little
  Translation: I called little Mary
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd -a-lola John o- mu -khongo (ulya)
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -see AUG-Agree-big DEM
  Translation: I saw that big John
  Comment: This is a case of unmarked demonstrative different from demonstrative pronoun used to point out things. This kind of demonstrative is not obligatory. It is unclear if the property value here should be yes, or no.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w11a Order A--PN in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Nd -a-bukan-ire nende a- ba -siani ba-taru nende O- mu -khana. Nd -a-lang-ire a- ba -siani (abo)
  Gloss: 1sg- PST -meet-PST with AUG- C2 -boy 2.-three and AUG- C6 -girl. 1st-PST-call-PST AUG-2-boy (DEM)
  Translation: I met three boys and a girl. I called the boys
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Mberera, John, si - e-nyala khujiba li -rebo liao tawe.
  Gloss: Sorry, John NEG-1sg-can answer C5-question your NEG
  Translation: I am sorry, John, I cannot answer your question.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words:  O- mu -khana! Nochama, itsa-kho ano!
  Gloss: AUG- C1 -lady Please come here
  Translation: Lady! Please, come here!
  Comment: NB: the augment is obligatory.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words:  Mberera, mu-siani, si - e-nyala khujiba li -rebo liao tawe.
  Gloss: Sorry, C6-man NEG-1sg-can answer C5-question your NEG
  Translation: I am sorry, man, I cannot answer your question.
  Comment: In this type of example, the augment seems to be absent. Further work is needed to determine the distribution of the augment here.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Ewe mu -khana! Nochama, itsa-kho ano!
  Gloss: You C1 -lady Please come here
  Translation: You Lady! Please, come here!
  Comment: Singular count nouns in initial vocative phrases can be prec eded by unmarked pronoun “ you ”. It is not clear if this should count as a special vocative marker or not.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words:  Mary, itsa ano!
  Gloss: Mary, come here!
  Translation: Mary, come here!
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Ceciliane Odangah Forum
+ w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Ceciliane Odangah Forum
  Words: Ewe Mary ! Itsa ano!
  Gloss: You Mary! Come here!
  Comment: Like singular count nouns, this is only applicable to initial vocative phrases. The unmarked pronoun ‘ you ’ precedes the proper name.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah