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Pashto

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: pst
  latlong: 34.5155,69.1952  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: laylaa gadd-ég-i
  Gloss: Layla dance-INTR-3SG.PRES
  Translation: Layla is dancing.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   02_Verb Subject No Taylor Roberts Forum
   03_Verb Object No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: spi pisho khog krr-a
  Gloss: dog(OBL M) cat(DIR F) hurt do(PST PFV)-F3SG
  Translation: the dog hurt the cat.
  Comment: Roberts 2000:12.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   05_Subject Verb Object No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: spi pisho khog krr-a
  Gloss: dog(OBL M) cat(DIR F) hurt do(PST PFV)-F3SG
  Translation: the dog hurt the cat
  Comment: Roberts 2000:12. Scrambling (OSV) is possible but not considered the basic order.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   07_Verb Subject Object No Taylor Roberts Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Taylor Roberts Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Taylor Roberts Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: dee asad laas
  Gloss: POSS Asad hand
  Translation: Asad's hand
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 153. One of only two prepositions in the language; aside from a single postposition, the remaining adpositions are ambipositions/circumpositions.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: pe tshaarre
  Gloss: INS knife
  Translation: with/by means of a knife
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 154. One of only two prepositions in the language; aside from a single postposition, the remaining adpositions are ambipositions/circumpositions.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: bazaar ta dz-em
  Gloss: market to go.PRS.IPFV-1SG
  Translation: I'm going to the market.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 154. The only postposition in the language; aside from two prepositions, the remaining adpositions are ambipositions/circumpositions.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: pindze khkwélee péeghlee
  Gloss: five pretty.F.DIR.PL girl.F.DIR.PL
  Translation: five pretty girls
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 85.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   14_Noun Adjective No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: pindze khkwélee péeghlee
  Gloss: five pretty.F.DIR.PL girl.F.DIR.PL
  Translation: five pretty girls
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 85.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   16_Noun Numeral No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: daa peeghla kitaab-úna khe lwal-i
  Gloss: DEM.F.DIR.SG girl.F.DIR.SG book.M-DIR.PL good.M.DIR.PL read-3SG
  Translation: That girl reads books well.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 88.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: dee dzan plaar
  Gloss: POSS John father
  Translation: John's father
  Comment: Babrakzai 1999: 31
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee maktab dee shaagerdáano dee dars dee dawree dee wakht le khwakhey na ddáka yaaduna
  Gloss: POSS school POSS students POSS study POSS period POSS time from happiness from full memories
  Translation: memories full of happiness of the time period of students' studying at school
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 172.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee asad dee plaar tsalor ddeeree ssaaysta lunnee
  Gloss: POSS Asad POSS father.OBL.SG four very.F.Dir.PL pretty daughter.DIR.PL
  Translation: Asad's father four very pretty daughters
  Comment: (also Num A N); same for alienable possession . Tegey and Robson: 171
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   20_Noun Possessor No Taylor Roberts Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: tégay alek wobe ghwaarr-i
  Gloss: thirsty.M.DIR.SG boy.M.DIR.SG water.F.PL want-PRS.3SG
  Translation: The thirsty boy wants water.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 85. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: tégi alekaan wobe ghwaarr-i
  Gloss: thirsty.M.DIR.PL boy.M.DIR.PL water.F.PL want-PRS.3PL
  Translation: The thirsty boys want water.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 86. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: dee tégi alek khwla wétsha wa
  Gloss: POSS thirsty.M.OBL.SG boy.M.OBL.SG mouth.F.DIR.SG dry.F.DIR.SG be.PST.IPFV.3SG.F
  Translation: The thirsty boy's mouth was dry.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 86. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee tégo alekáano khwlee wétshee wee
  Gloss: POSS thirsty.M.OBL.PL boy.M.OBL.PL mouth.F.DIR.PL dry.F.DIR.PL be.PST.IPFV.3PL.F
  Translation: The thirsty boys' mouths were dry.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 86. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Taylor Roberts Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Taylor Roberts Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: maa katel tshee asad rághay
  Gloss: 1SG.OBL see.PST.IPFV.3PL.M COMP Asad come.PST.PFV.3SG.M
  Translation: I saw that Asad had arrived.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 200. The matrix verb agrees with the embedded clause as if it is masculine plural.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: táasee wos de ta tse zyaan ne shey rasawel-ay dzeka tshee day zmaa porawérray day aw maa ta yee panaann raawrr-i da
  Gloss: 2PL now 3SG.M.OBL to any harm.M NEG be.PRS.PFV.2PL bring.PST.PFV-PTCP because COMP 3SG.M.ABS 1SG.POSS debtor.M be.PRS.IPFV.3SG.M and 1SG.OBL to 3SG.ABS asylum.F bring.PST.IPFV-3SG be.PRS.IPFV.3SG
  Translation: None of you can harm him because he owes me and came to me for asylum.
  Comment: Ulfat, "A True Story," cited by Tegey and Robson 1996: 213
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes David Pate Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No David Pate Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes David Pate Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No David Pate Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No David Pate Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative No David Pate Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No David Pate Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No David Pate Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No David Pate Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No David Pate Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Taylor Roberts Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Taylor Roberts Forum
  Words: ágha spin mottar de asad néway mottar day
  Gloss: DEM.M.DIR.SG white.M.DIR.SG car.M.DIR.SG POSS Asad new.M.DIR.SG car.M.DIR.SG be.PRS.IPFV.3SG.M
  Translation: That white car is Asad's new car.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 170.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Taylor Roberts Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes David Pate Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No David Pate Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No David Pate Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No David Pate Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No David Pate Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No David Pate Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes David Pate Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No David Pate Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No David Pate Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes David Pate Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No David Pate Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No David Pate Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No David Pate Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes David Pate Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No David Pate Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No David Pate Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No David Pate Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No David Pate Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No David Pate Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No David Pate Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No David Pate Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No David Pate Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No David Pate Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No David Pate Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Taylor Roberts Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Taylor Roberts Forum