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Polish

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  ISO 639-3 Code: pol
  latlong: 52.23,21.01  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotr śpi.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom sleep.3sg
  Translation: Piotr is sleeping.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr pisze list.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom write.3sg list.acc
  Translation: Piotr is writing a a letter.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: zwyczajny professor
  Gloss: ordinary-nom.s.m professor-nom.s.m
  Translation: an ordinary professor
  Comment: pre-nominal adjectives are typically "qualifying"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: klon zwyczajny
  Gloss: maple-nom.s.m ordinary-nom.s.m
  Translation: Norway Maple
  Comment: postonominal adjectives are common (but not exclusive) in the taxonomic names of species
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: A co z tymi dwiema paczkami?
  Gloss: and what with those.ins two.ins packages.ins.pl
  Translation: And what about the two packages?
  Comment: follow up on previous context
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Pada śnieg.
  Gloss: fall.3sg snow.nom
  Translation: It is snowing.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotr kroi mięso.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom cut.3sg meat.acc
  Translation: Piotr is cutting meat.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotra zasypał śnieg.
  Gloss: Piotr.acc burried snow.nom
  Translation: The snow burried Peter.
  Comment: The sentence can answer 'What happened?'. It is important that the verb is in the spray/load class. Substituting an animate subject, with 'snow' in the instrumental, cannot be an answer to 'What happened?'.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: #Piotr mięso kroi.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom meat.acc cut.3sg
  Translation: Peter is cutting meat.
  Comment: Infelicitous as anwer to 'What happened?'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: #Mięso kroi Piotr.
  Gloss: meat.acc cut.3sg Piotr.nom
  Translation: Peter is cutting meat.
  Comment: Infelicitous as anwer to 'What happened?'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotr je zupę.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom eat.3sg soup.acc
  Translation: Piotr is eating soup.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotr {#list} pisze {list}.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom letter.acc write.3sg letter.acc
  Translation: Peter is writing a letter.
  Comment: Felicitous with contrastive focus on 'letter'.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Pisze Piotr list.
  Gloss: write.3sg Piotr letter.acc
  Translation: Petr is writing a letter.
  Comment: Perhaps felicitous with emphasis on 'pisze', cf. English 'Peter IS writing the letter.'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: #Ugryzł Piotra pies.
  Gloss: bit Piotr.acc dog.nom
  Translation: A dog bit Piotr.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: #Piotra pies ugryzł.
  Gloss: Piotr.acc dog.nom bit
  Translation: A dog bit Piotr.
  Comment: Felicitous with contrastive focus on 'Piotr'.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 10_Object Verb Subject Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotra ukąsiła żmija.
  Gloss: Piotr.acc bit viper.nom
  Translation: A viper bit Piotr.
  Comment: Felicitous as answer to 'What happened to Peter?'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: na stole
  Gloss: on table.loc
  Translation: on the table (static location)
  Comment: spatial prepositional phrases
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: z Piotrem
  Gloss: with Peter.ins
  Translation: with Peter (as a companion)
  Comment: non-spatial prepositional phrase
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   13_Adjective Noun Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: aktor komiczny
  Gloss: actor-nom.s.m. comic-nom.s.m
  Translation: a comedy actor
  Comment: postonominal adjectives have a "classificatory" or "taxonomic" ("kind") reading - the same adjective in a prenominal position may not have the same reading
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: komiczny actor
  Gloss: comic-nom.s.m actor-nom.s.m.
  Translation: a funny actor
  Comment: pre-nominal adjectives are typically "qualifying"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: pies domowy
  Gloss: dog-nom.s.m domestic-nom.s.m
  Translation: the domestic dog (species)
  Comment: postonominal adjectives are common (but not exclusive) in the taxonomic names of species
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: profesor zwyczajny
  Gloss: professor-nom.s.m ordinary-nom.s.m
  Translation: a professor of the highest rank in Poland
  Comment: (Latin: professor ordinarius) postonominal adjectives have a "classificatory" or "taxonomic" ("kind") reading - the same adjective in a prenominal position may not have the same reading
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: dwie/trzy/cztery kobiety
  Gloss: two/three/four women-nom.pl
  Translation: two/three/four women
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 16_Noun Numeral No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: #kobiety dwie/trzy/cztery
  Gloss: women-nom.pl two/three/four
  Translation: two/three/four women
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: ta kobieta
  Gloss: dem-nom.s.f woman-nom.s.f
  Translation: this woman
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: tamta kobieta
  Gloss: distal.dem-nom.s.f woman-nom.s.f
  Translation: that woman (over there)
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: kobieta ta
  Gloss: woman-nom.s.f dem-nom.s.f
  Translation: this woman
  Comment: commonly found with topics, e.g. There was a woman waiting at the bus stop. THE WOMAN was wearing a black coat.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: #Piotra książka
  Gloss: Piotr.gen book.nom
  Translation: Peter's book.
  Comment: Felicitous with contrastive focus: 'Take Peter's book, not Mary's".
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: książka Piotra Nowaka
  Gloss: book.nom Piotr.gen Nowak.gen
  Translation: Piotr Nowak's book
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: buda naszego psa
  Gloss: house our.gen dog.gen
  Translation: our dog's house
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: mój dom
  Gloss: 1sg.nom house.nom
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: ojciec mój
  Gloss: father.nom 1sg.nom
  Translation: my father
  Comment: found with kinship nouns; slightly outdated
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: czerwona książka
  Gloss: red-nom.sg.f book-nom.sg.f
  Translation: a red book
  Comment: agreement in number, gender, and case
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Książka jest czerwona.
  Gloss: book-nom.sg.f is red-nom.sg.f
  Translation: The book is red.
  Comment: agreement in number, gender, and case
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Książki są czerwone.
  Gloss: books-nom.pl.f sre red-nom.non-v.f
  Translation: The books are red.
  Comment: Polish has 3 genders in the singular (masculine, feminine, neuter) and 2 genders in the plural ('virile' for masculine human nouns, 'non-virile' for everything else).
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: bardzo/za/dość wysoki
  Gloss: very/too/enough tall
  Translation: very/too tall', 'tall enough'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotr powiedział, że Jan wyszedł.
  Gloss: Piotr said that Jan left
  Translation: Piotr said that Jan left.
  Comment: complementizer = "that"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr spytał, czy Jan wyszedł.
  Gloss: Piotr asked if Jan left
  Translation: Piotr asked if Jan left.
  Comment: complementizer = "if"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotr wyszedł ponieważ Jan przyszedł.
  Gloss: Piotr left because Jan arrived
  Translation: Piotr left because Jan arrived.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Extra Examples No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Te cztery listy przyszły wczoraj.
  Gloss: these.nom.pl letters.nom.pl arrived yesterday
  Translation: The four letters arrived yesterday.
  Comment: Context: Aba sent us four letters last week and two packages.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: A co z tymi dwiema paczkami?
  Gloss: and what with those.ins two.ins packages.ins.pl
  Translation: And what about the two packages?
  Comment: Follow up on previous context
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz check? Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: A co z *(tymi) dwiema paczkami?
  Gloss: and what with those.ins two.ins packages.ins.pl
  Comment: Cannot skip the demonstrative in the in the context where Aba sent us four letters last week and two packages.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: nie pracuję, nie chcę, nie muszę, nie jestem
  Gloss: neg work.1sg, neg want.1sg, neg must.1sg, not am.1sg
  Translation: I don't work', 'I don't want', 'I don't have to', 'I'm not'
  Comment: Sentential negation is obligatorily preverbal in Polish, although it is not a prefix. Negation may not be separated from the verb even by reflexive or pronominal clitics (Błaszczak 2001, Migdalski 2006). The same particle "nie" is used for constituent negation, but sentential negation can be reliably distinguished by obligatory genitive case on the direct object (constituent negation has no effect on case). Sentential negation imposes stress shift on the verbal element that is negated so that it forms a p
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Widzisz ten biały ręcznik?
  Gloss: see.2sg this white towel
  Translation: Do you see this white towel?
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Widzisz ten ręcznik biały?
  Gloss: see.2sg this towel white
  Translation: Do you see this white towel?
  Comment: Judgment unclear. This order is marked, but certainly possible and found in the corpus. Especially when followed by further modifiers, e.g."czy ktoś zabierze tego psa dużego, obolałego po kastracji?" (google, 'Q anyone take this dog big hurting after neutering' - "Will anyone take this big dog in pain after neutering?")
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz marked, but possible in neutral contexts Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Te cztery statki musiały odpłynąć z portu.
  Gloss: dem four ships had-to sail-away from harbour
  Translation: The four ships had to leave the harbour.
  Comment: Partitive interpretation ruled out.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: #Pięć tych statków musiało odpłynąć z portu.
  Gloss: five dem ships had-to sail-away from harbour
  Translation: The five ships had to leave the harbour.
  Comment: Infelicitous with a non-partitive interpretation The partitive interpretation is unavailable with numerals 1-4 which agree with the nouns in number, gender, case. The given example sounds not so natural without a context, but I found this construction in literary work, e.g. Context: a tank with goldfish burst, a person helping with saving the fish: "No tak... - powiedziałm kładąc do miski sześć tych poczwar." (Actually... - I said putting into the bowl six (of) those creatures.) - it is clear there we
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Czy Piotr je zupę?
  Gloss: Q Peter eats soup
  Translation: Does Peter eat soup? / Is Peter eating soup?
  Comment: The question marker 'czy' can be omitted and the standard declarative word order receives an interrogative intonation only. Interestingly, 'czy' is homophonous with disjunction: "Wolisz Sprite czy Colę?" ('Do you prefer Sprite or Coca-Cola?')
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Piotr je zupę?
  Gloss: Peter eats soup
  Translation: Does Peter eat soup? / Is Peter eating soup?
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Je Piotr zupę?
  Gloss: Eats Peter soup?
  Translation: Does Peter eat soup? / Is Peter eating soup?
  Comment: This is not a neutral question. It conveys surprise with a high pitch rise on 'zupę'. See the next example for a natural and wellformed V fronting question
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Czy napisał Piotr list matce? - Tak, napisał.
  Gloss: Q wrote Peter letter to-mother - yes, wrote
  Translation: Did Peter write a letter to his mother? Yes, he did.
  Comment: when a Q particle is included verb-fronting sounds very natural:
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Będzie Piotr pisał list?
  Gloss: aux.Fut Peter write letter
  Translation: Will Peter be writing a letter?'
  Comment: Tentative yes. The future auxiliary seems to be able to form a naturally sounding question. More research needed. This word order sounds perfect when the question particle is added, see below.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Czy będzie Piotr pisał list?
  Gloss: Q aux.Fut Peter write letter
  Translation: Will Peter be writing a letter?'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Czy Piotr je zupę? --- Tak.
  Gloss: Q Peter eats soup -- yes
  Translation: Does Peter eat soup? - Yes.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Czy Piotr je zupę? --- Je.
  Gloss: Q Peter eats soup -- eats
  Translation: Does Peter eat soup? - Yes.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Będzie Piotr pisał list? -- Będzie.
  Gloss: aux.Fut Peter write letter --- aux.Fut
  Translation: Will Peter be writing a letter? - Yes.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz see example and comment Forum
  Words: Będzie Piotr pisał list? -- Będzie pisał.
  Gloss: aux.Fut Peter write letter --- aux.Fut write
  Translation: Will Peter be writing a letter? - Yes.
  Comment: This should be further researched, but especially in the Plural, "repeating" the main verb sounds good to me. "Będzieci pisali matce listy?" - "Będziemy pisali!" (Will you be writing letters to your mother? - Yes, we will.)
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Czy napisał Piotr list matce? - Tak, napisał.
  Gloss: Q wrote Peter letter to-mother - yes, wrote
  Translation: Did Peter write a letter to his mother? Yes, he did.
  Comment: (Feedback appreciated on this setting)
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum
  Words: Paweł tę książkę kupił po południu.
  Gloss: Paul.Nom this book.Acc bought after noon
  Translation: Paul bought this book in the afternoon.'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Barbara Tomaszewicz Forum