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Russian

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  ISO 639-3 Code: rus
  latlong: 56.072035, 37.529295  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Ivan spit.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM sleeps
  Translation: Ivan is sleeping.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Idjot dožd'.
  Gloss: goes rain.NOM
  Translation: It's raining.
  Comment: The order Verb Subject is neutral with unaccusative predicates (i.e., when the verb is intransitive and the subject is non-agentive).
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: Zvonit telefon.
  Gloss: rings telephone.NOM
  Translation: The telephone is ringing.
  Comment: The order Verb Subject is neutral with unaccusative predicates (i.e., when the verb is intransitive and the subject is non-agentive).
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: Tancuet Ivan, a ne Boris.
  Gloss: dances Ivan.NOM but not Boris.NOM
  Translation: Ivan is dancing, not Boris.
  Comment: Although the order Verb Subject is not neutral with unergative predicates (i.e., when the verb is intransitive and the subject is agentive), if the subject is contrastively focused, then the word order is felicitous.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Ivan kupil knigu.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM bought book.ACC
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Soldata ubilo pulej.
  Gloss: soldier.ACC.M.SG killed.N bullet.INS.F.SG
  Translation: A soldier was killed by a bullet.
  Comment: Although the order Object Verb is not neutral in sentences with a Nominative Subject and an Accusative Direct Object, this order is standard in cases of so-called "adversity impersonals". Note that this sentence is not passive, in spite of the translation. There is no passive morphology on the verb.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: #Ivan knigu kupil.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM book.ACC bought
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Comment: This example is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the object is focused.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Ivan kupil knigu.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM bought book.ACC
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: #Ivan knigu kupil.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM book.ACC bought
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Comment: This example is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the object is focused.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Kupil Ivan knigu, a Boris - žurnal.
  Gloss: bought Ivan.NOM book.ACC but Boris.NOM magazine.ACC
  Translation: Ivan bought a book and Boris a magazine.
  Comment: The order Verb Subject Object is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the subject and object are both contrastively focused.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: Poterjal odnaždy Ivan sto rublej.
  Gloss: lost once Ivan.NOM hundred.ACC roubles.GEN
  Translation: Ivan once lost one hundred rubles.
  Comment: The order Verb Subject Object is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. at the beginning of narrative contexts.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Kupil knigu Ivan, a ne Boris.
  Gloss: bought book.ACC Ivan.NOM and not Boris.NOM
  Translation: Ivan bought a book, not Boris.
  Comment: The order Verb Object Subject is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the subject is contrastively focused.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: #Knigu Ivan kupil.
  Gloss: book.ACC Ivan.NOM bought
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Comment: The order Object Subject Verb is felicitous in Russian in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the object is topicalized.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: #Knigu kupil Ivan.
  Gloss: book.ACC bought Ivan.NOM
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Comment: The order Object Verb Subject is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the object is topicalized..
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: v restorane
  Gloss: in restaurant.PREP
  Translation: in a/the restaurant
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *dome v
  Gloss: house.PREP in
  Translation: in the house
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Maša umnaja studentka
  Gloss: Maša.NOM smart.NOM.FEM.SG student.NOM.FEM.SG
  Translation: Maša is a smart student.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: interesnaja kniga
  Gloss: interesting.NOM.F.SG book.NOM.F.SG
  Translation: interesting book
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: pjat' knig
  Gloss: five.NOM books.GEN
  Translation: five books
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 16_Noun Numeral No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: #Ja pročital knig pjat'
  Gloss: I.NOM read books.GEN five.ACC
  Translation: I read five books.
  Comment: This example is felicitous only under an approximative (i.e. non-neutral) reading: I read approximately five books.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: ètot restoran
  Gloss: this.NOM.M.SG restaurant.NOM.M.SG
  Translation: this restaurant
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Ja pročital knigu ètu.
  Gloss: I.NOM read book.ACC this
  Translation: I read this book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: V restorane ètom ja uže byl.
  Gloss: In restaurant.PREP this I.NOM already was
  Translation: I was already in this restaurant.
  Comment: Note that the order Noun Demonstrative is felicitous in topicalized (i.e., non-neutral) contexts. Thus, this example is felicitous in a context where this restaurant has already been mentioned.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Sašina kniga
  Gloss: Sasha's.ADJ.POSS.NOM.F.SG book.NOM.F.SG
  Translation: Sasha's book
  Comment: Note that prenominal possessor adjectives are restricted to proper names and some kinship terms. (Pronominal possessive adjectives are also prenominal.)
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: dom Ivana
  Gloss: house.NOM Ivan.GEN
  Translation: Ivan's house
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Denis Paperno Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Jillian Kozyra Forum
  Words: umnaja studentka
  Gloss: smart.NOM.F.SG student.NOM.F.SG
  Translation: smart student
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Èti knigi interesnye.
  Gloss: these books.NOM.PL interesting.NOM.PL
  Translation: These books are interesting.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: očen' strašnyj.M.SG
  Gloss: very scary
  Translation: very scary
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Èta kniga interesnaja dostatočno.
  Gloss: this book interesting enough
  Translation: This book is interesting enough.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Jillian Kozyra Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Ivan dumaet čto lingvistika interesnaja nauka
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM thinks COMP linguistics.NOM interesting science.NOM
  Translation: Ivan thinks that linguistics is an interesting science
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Ivan dumaet lingvistika interesnaja nauka čto
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM thinks linguistics.NOM interesting science.NOM COMP
  Translation: Ivan thinks that linguistics is an interesting science.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: Xotja ja ne ljublju fil'my užasov, mne nravjatsja fil'my Xičkoka
  Gloss: Although I.NOM not love films.ACC horror.GEN I.DAT like.PL films Hitchcock.GEN
  Translation: Although I don't like horror films, I like Hitchcock's films.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Ja ne ljublju fil'my užasov xotja, mne nravjatsja fil'my Xičkoka
  Gloss: I.NOM not love films.ACC horror.GEN although I.DAT like.PL films Hitchcock.GEN
  Translation: Although I don't like horror films, I like Hitchcock's films
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
  Words: Kto prišël?
  Gloss: who come.3SG.PST
  Translation: Who came?
  Contributor: Jillian Kozyra
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Denis Paperno Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Denis Paperno Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: ètot novyj restoran
  Gloss: this.NOM.M.SG new.NOM.M.SG restaurant.NOM.M.SG
  Translation: this new restaurant
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Ja pročital ètu knigu interesnuju.
  Gloss: I.NOM read this book.ACC interesting
  Translation: I read this interesting book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: V ètom restorane novom ja uže byl.
  Gloss: in this restaurant.PREP new I.NOM already was
  Translation: I was already in this new restaurant.
  Comment: Note that the order Demonstrative Noun Adjective is felicitous in topicalized (i.e., non-neutral) contexts. Thus, this example is felicitous in a context where this restaurant has already been mentioned.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Ja pročital knigu interesnuju ètu.
  Gloss: I.NOM read book.ACC interesting this
  Translation: I read this interesting book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Ja pročital knigu ètu interesnuju.
  Gloss: I.NOM read book.ACC this interesting
  Translation:  I read this interesting book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: V restorane ètom novom ja uže byl.
  Gloss: in restaurant.PREP this new I.NOM already was
  Translation: I was already in this new restaurant.
  Comment: Note that the order Noun Demonstrative Adjective is felicitous in topicalized (i.e., non-neutral) contexts. Thus, this example is felicitous in a context where this restaurant has already been mentioned.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Words: *Ja pročital interesnuju ètu knigu.
  Gloss: I.NOM read interesting this book.ACC
  Translation: I read this interesting book.
  Comment: 
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: V novom ètom restorane ja uže byl.
  Gloss: in new this restaurant.PREP I.NOM already was
  Translation: I was already in this new restaurant.
  Comment: Note that the order Adjective Demonstrative Noun is felicitous in topicalized (i.e., non-neutral) contexts. Thus, this example is felicitous in a context where this restaurant has already been mentioned.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Stephanie Harves Forum
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: *Ja pročital interesnuju knigu ètu.
  Gloss: I.NOM read interesting book this.ACC
  Translation: I read this interesting book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: V novom restorane ètom ja uže byl.
  Gloss: in new restaurant this.PREP I.NOM already was
  Translation: I was already in this new restaurant.
  Comment: Note that the order Adjective Noun Demonstrative is felicitous in topicalized (i.e., non-neutral) contexts. Thus, this example is felicitous in a context where this restaurant has already been mentioned.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Denis Paperno Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Denis Paperno Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Denis Paperno Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Denis Paperno Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Denis Paperno Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Denis Paperno Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Denis Paperno Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Denis Paperno Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Nina Radkevich Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Nina Radkevich Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Denis Paperno Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Denis Paperno Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ja dostala vino i syr iz xolodil'nika
  Gloss: I take.out.PST.SG.FEM wine.ACC and cheese.ACC from fridge
  Translation: I took wine and cheese from the fridge.
  Comment: see property definition.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ja doela syr no ne smogla dopit' vino
  Gloss: I eat.PST cheese.ACC but NEG could drink.up.INF wine.ACC
  Translation: I ate the cheese but I wasn't able to drink the wine
  Comment: (From property def): as follow up of: I took wine and cheese from the fridge
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ja s.jel mjasa
  Gloss: I.NOM eat.PFV-SG.MASC.PST meat.PRT.SG
  Translation: I ate some meat
  Comment: From the property definitions: indefinite mass nouns can have partitive case (PRT), which counts as an article .
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ja doela syr no ne smogla dopit' vino
  Gloss: I eat.PST cheese.ACC but NEG could drink.up.INF wine.ACC
  Translation: I ate the cheese but I wasn't able to drink the wine
  Comment: see property def
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ja vstretila sobaku
  Gloss: I.NOM meet.pst.fem.sg dog.acc.sg
  Translation:  I met a dog (can also mean: I met the dog)
  Comment: from the property definition: A singular count noun with accusative case is compatible with both an indefinite and a definite interpretation, thus counting as bare.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Ja vstretila sobaku
  Gloss: I.NOM meet.pst.fem.sg dog.acc.sg
  Translation: From the property definition. ("I met a dog " (can also mean I met the dog)
  Comment: (to verify: dog cannot be in the geniitive. )
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman Forum
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Nina Radkevich Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Nina Radkevich Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Nina Radkevich Forum