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Shupamem

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: bax
  latlong: 5.730777, 10.901184  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: njam te
  Gloss: horse run.away.PST
  Translation: a horse ran away
  Comment: Recent Past
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: ngeret sente
  Gloss: glass break-PST
  Translation: The glass broke
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mon lije
  Gloss: child sleep.past
  Translation: The child slept
  Comment: The subject "mon" as a bare noun is interpreted as definite
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ 02_Verb Subject No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare The order Verb Subject is possible when the subject is focussed. Forum
  Words: a shiket-na mfon
  Gloss: Foc speak-perfective king
  Translation: It is the king who spoke.
  Comment: When the speaker is focusing on the subject NP while answering a question, the natural way of doing that is to prepose the verb before the subject DP. This is generally done when answering a question like "who spoke?"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   03_Verb Object Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   04_Object Verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: Ndàm yùn màtwá
  Gloss: Ndam buy.PST car.SG
  Translation: Ndam bought a car
  Comment: Recent past
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: pon su tasa
  Gloss: children wash-PAST dishes
  Translation: the children washed the dishes
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   06_Subject Object Verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare This order is possible when the subject is focussed. Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: na paa ma ndap
  Gloss: mother be.PRES. at house
  Translation: The mother is at home
  Comment: 'Ma' is the most general locative preposition.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mfon kut ndap nkop nke
  Gloss: King buid-PST house near river
  Translation: The king built a house near a river
  Comment: A bare noun is either definite or indefinite.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: lera won ma ndale ndia'a
  Gloss: teacher go.PST to school today
  Translation: The teacher went to school today.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: tam matwa me
  Gloss: long car arrive.PST
  Translation: A long car arrived.
  Comment: A bar noun can be either definite or indefinite.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: gbam pam run
  Gloss: big bag be.full
  Translation: The big bag is full
  Comment: "Full" in Shupamem is a verb.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: ntam mbun
  Gloss: long coffen
  Translation: "a long coffen"
  Comment: May be interpreted as a definit NP as well
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: tam tam bun
  Gloss: long long coffens
  Translation: "Long coffens"
  Comment: May be interpreted as "the long coffens" as well
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: nda ngut gure
  Gloss: house big big
  Translation: "big houses"
  Comment: May be interpretated as "the big houses"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: rane mon
  Gloss: smart child
  Translation: "A smart child"
  Comment:  May be also interpreted as "The smart child"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: rane pon
  Gloss: smart children
  Translation: "Smart children"
  Comment: May be also be interpreted as "The smart children."
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: lapa'a sisi pa kamkeri
  Gloss: shoes black black copula rare
  Translation: Black shoes are rare.
  Comment: The order Adj Noun is impossible with [sisi] "black" (but not for other adjectives).
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: nda ngure
  Gloss: house big
  Translation: "A big house"
  Comment: May be interpretaed as "the big house" as well
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mun kemshe
  Gloss: man short
  Translation: "a short man"
  Comment: Ma be interpreted as "The short man"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: puhen kemshe kemshe
  Gloss: men short short
  Translation: "short men"
  Comment: May be interpreted as "The short men"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   15_Numeral Noun Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: pon pi-kpa two pwomshe
  Gloss: children AGR-four come.PST meeting
  Translation: The four children came to the meeting.
  Comment: In Shupamem, when the numeral occurs after the noun, the Noun Phase is interpreted as a definite NP.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare The order demonstrative noun is possible when the demonstrative is focussed. For example, "this car" not "that car". Forum
  Words: ji pam run
  Gloss: this bag be.full
  Translation: This bag is full.
  Comment: This order is possible when the demonstrative "ji" is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: ji pam pa kamkeri
  Gloss: this bag is rare
  Translation: This bag is rare.
  Comment: This order is possible when the demonstrative "ji" is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: pam i pa kamkeri
  Gloss: bag this copula rare
  Translation: This bag is rare.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   19_Possessor Noun No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: kun mfon pa ngure
  Gloss: bed king copula big
  Translation: The king's bed is big.
  Comment: Non-pronominal possessors always comes after the head noun.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: ngbam ngbam pam run-te
  Gloss: big big bags be.full-pluractional
  Translation: big bags are full
  Comment: The reduplication process is used to encode the plural although in other cases, the plural is marked by a noun class.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: pon pa nda tam tam-shi
  Gloss: children copula very tall tall-plural agreement
  Translation: the children are very tall
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: nda ngbam pam run
  Gloss: very big bag be.full
  Translation: A very big bag is full.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: *ngbam nda pam run
  Gloss: big very bag full
  Translation: A very big bag is full.
  Comment: Degree modifiers precede adjectives.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: mfon ria mi i ton pit
  Gloss: king say-PST that 3sg burn-PST war
  Translation: The king said that he won the war
  Comment: The meaning of the verb 'burn' is extended here to 'win'
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mon na ngupme mi i pa rani
  Gloss: child PROG think that 3sg copula smart
  Translation: The child thinks that he is smart.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: mon yuwo i gba pam-mi ne kwon lerwa
  Gloss: child who 3sg loose.PAST bag-3sg.Gen Comp miss-PST school
  Translation: The child who lost his bag missed the class
  Comment: In relative clauses, there is a final complementizer.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words:  a pa mon yuwo mfon fu ne
  Gloss: Foc copula child that king call.PST that
  Translation: It is the child that the king called.
  Comment: In a cleft construction, there is always final complementizer "ne".
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: mfon won na mengaka i ken ne
  Gloss: king leave.PST perfect because 3sg be.tired COMP
  Translation: The king left because he was tired.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mba jekaa mfon kene, i ke ku'ushe pwomshe
  Gloss: Even though king be-tired, 3sg still continue.PST meeting
  Translation: Even though the king was tired, he still went ahead with the meeting.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ Extra Examples Yes Jillian Kozyra Forum
  Words: a yun Njoya matwa
  Gloss: it buy.PST Njoya car
  Translation: NJOYA bought a car.
  Comment: The verb precedes the subject when the subject is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) no Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare It depends on how pí should be analyzed exactly. This in turn might influence the no settings for N2 08 or N2 06. Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare The order Demonstrative Adjective Noun is possible when the demonstrative is focussed. Forum
  Words: ji gbam pam run
  Gloss: this big bag be.full
  Translation: This big bag is full.
  Comment: This order is possible when the demonstrative "ji" is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare The order Demonstrative Noun Adjective is possible when the demonstrative is focussed. Forum
  Words: ji pa ngure pa kamkeri
  Gloss: this bag big copula rare
  Translation: This big bag is rare.
  Comment: This order is possible when the demonstrative "ji" is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: pa ngure ji pa kamkeri
  Gloss: bag big this copula rare
  Translation: This big bag is rare.
  Comment: The word for "bag" is [pam] but the [m] drops in prenasal context.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: *gbam ji pam run
  Gloss: big this bag be.full
  Translation: This big bag is full.
  Comment: Sometimes this order is acceptable with focus adjective.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: ngbam pam ji run
  Gloss: big bag this be.full
  Translation: This big bag is full.
  Comment: This order is acceptable in neutral context (no focus).
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: shi ndalerwa pi-kpa
  Gloss: these books pi-four
  Translation: These four books
  Comment: pi marks definite. Sometimes glossed as just ARG. (ex entered for Laziz and to be transferred to Laziz)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: Pon pi-kpa shi
  Gloss: children pi-four these
  Translation: These four children (definite)
  Comment: (ex entered for Laziz and to be transferred to Laziz)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: Pon p-i pi-kpa
  Gloss: children pi-these pi-four
  Translation: These four children (definite)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
  Words: kpa pon p-i
  Gloss: four children Agr.Dem
  Translation: These four children
  Comment: (ex entered for Laziz and to be transferred to Laziz)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare Forum