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Sicilian

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: scn
  latlong: 36.928831,14.725091  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Gjovànni partìu
  Gloss: John left
  Translation: John left
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Gjovànni arrivàu tàrdu
  Gloss: John arrived late
  Translation: John arrived late
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: partìu Gjovànni
  Gloss: left John
  Translation: John left
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti na kàsa
  Gloss: I.saw a house
  Translation: I saw a house
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: ki succirìu? B: ammazzàrru a n'wòmminu
  Gloss: A: what happened? B: they.killed a man
  Translation: A: what happened? B: a man was killed
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 04_Object Verb No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: na kàsa vìtti
  Gloss: a house I.saw
  Translation: I saw a house
  Comment: Marked order, yet sometimes preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: ki succirìu? B: (a) n'wòmminu ammazzàrru!
  Gloss: A: what happened? B: (to) a man they.killed
  Translation: A: what happened? B: a man was killed!
  Comment: Marked order, yet sometimes preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Gjovànni vìtti na kàsa
  Gloss: John saw a house
  Translation: John saw a house
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: i polizzjòtti ammazzàrru a n'wòmminu
  Gloss: the policemen killed a man
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Gjovànni na kàsa vìtti
  Gloss: John a house saw
  Translation: John saw a house
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: i polizzjòtti a n'wòmminu ammazzàrru
  Gloss: the policemen to a man killed
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti Ggjovànni na kàsa
  Gloss: saw John a house
  Translation: John saw a house
  Comment: Marked order (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ammazzàrru i polizjòtti a n'wòmminu
  Gloss: killed the policemen to a man
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Comment: Marked order (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti na kàsa Gjovànni
  Gloss: saw a house John
  Translation: John saw a house
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ammazzàrru a n'wòmminu i polizjòtti
  Gloss: killed to a man the policemen
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: na kàsa Gjovànni vìtti
  Gloss: a house John saw
  Translation: John saw a house
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: (a) n'wòmminu i polizzjòtti ammazzàrru
  Gloss: (to) a man the policemen killed
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: na kàsa vìtti Gjovànni
  Gloss: a house saw John
  Translation: John saw a house
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: a n'wòmminu ammazzàrru i polizjòtti
  Gloss: to a man killed the policemen
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi nn’ìi a mmàri
  Gloss: to.me "ne" I.went to sea
  Translation: I went to the sea
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: niscìi kku Mmàrju
  Gloss: I.went.out with Mario
  Translation: I went out with Mario
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * niscìi Mmàrju kku
  Gloss: I.went.out Mario with
  Translation: I went out with Mario
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi nu bbèllu lìbbru
  Gloss: to.me I.read a beautiful book
  Translation: I read a beautiful book
  Comment: A few adjectives only are allowed in the prenominal position (check Guardiano & Stavrou 2012)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi nu llìbbru bbèllu
  Gloss: to.me I.read a book beautiful
  Translation: I read a beautiful book
  Comment: More examples in Guardiano & Stavrou (2012)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: na màkina rrùssa / * na rrùssa màkina
  Gloss: a car red / a red car
  Translation: a red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi tri llìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read three books
  Translation: I read three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 16_Noun Numeral No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * mi ligghìi lìbbra tri
  Gloss: to.me I.read books three
  Translation: I read three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi sti lìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read these books
  Translation: I read these books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * mi ligghìi lìbbra (ki)sti
  Gloss: to.me I.read books these
  Translation: I read these books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * ri Ggiovànni nu ritràttu
  Gloss: of John a picture
  Translation: A picture of John
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: nu ritràttu ri Ggiovànni
  Gloss: a picture of John
  Translation: a picture of John
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: u mo’ lìbbru
  Gloss: the my book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: u lìbbru mìu
  Gloss: the bookMS myMS
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: m’akkattài na bbèlla màkina
  Gloss: to.me I.bought a beautifulFS carFS
  Translation: I bought a beautiful car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: m’akkattài ru bbèlli màkini
  Gloss: to.me I.bought two beautifulFP carFP
  Translation: I bought two beautiful cars
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: sta màkina è bbèlla
  Gloss: this carFS is beutifulFS
  Translation: this car is beautiful
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: sti màkini su bbèlli
  Gloss: these carFP are beautiful FP
  Translation: these car are beautiful
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Gjovànni è trwòppu jàutu
  Gloss: John is too tall
  Translation: John is too tall
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Gjovànni è jàutu assài
  Gloss: John is tall very
  Translation: John is very tall
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ki ankòra nunn'a mmancjàtu Gjovànni?
  Gloss: what yet not has eaten John
  Translation: John has not eaten yet?
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ki ankòra nunn’a niscjùtu Ggjovànni?
  Gloss: what yet not has exited John
  Translation: John has not exited yet?
  Comment: Ggjovànni è niscjùtu (lit. John is exited) can only mean that John is not at home
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ti rìssi ka Ggiovànni arrwàu
  Gloss: to.you I.told that John arrived
  Translation: I told you that John arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: nun vìnni pikkì u mo' fìgghju èra malàtu
  Gloss: not I.came because the my son was sick
  Translation: I didn't come because my son was sick
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi tri llìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read three books
  Translation: I read three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * mi ligghìi lìbbra tri
  Gloss: to.me I.read books three
  Translation: I read three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi i/ssi tri lìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read the/those three books
  Translation: I read the/those three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: i kwàttru lìttri arruvàrru ajèri
  Gloss: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * mi ligghìi i/ssi lìbbra tri
  Gloss: to.me I.read the/those books three
  Translation: I read the/those three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * i lìttri kwàttru arruvàrru ajèri
  Gloss: the letters four arrived yesterday
  Translation: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi i tri llìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read the three books
  Translation: I read the three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: i kwàttru lìttri arruvàrru ajèri
  Gloss: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: mi ligghìi ssi/sti tri lìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read those/these three books
  Translation: I read those/these three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ddi kwàttru lìttri arruvàrru ajèri
  Gloss: those four letter arrived yesterday
  Translation: those four letter arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * mi ligghìi tri llìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read three books
  Translation: I read three books
  Comment: Indefinite only
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti i/ssi tri kkàni
  Gloss: I.saw theMP/thoseMP three dogMP
  Translation: I saw the/those three dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti (a) ttri kkàni
  Gloss: I.saw (to) three dogMP
  Translation: I saw three dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti i/ssi tri kkàni
  Gloss: I.saw the /those three dogs
  Translation: I saw the/those three dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti i/ssi tri kkàni
  Gloss: I.saw theMP/thoseMP three dogMP
  Translation: I saw the/those three dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti (a) ttri kkàni
  Gloss: I.saw (to) three dogMP
  Translation: I saw three dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti i/ssi tri kkàni
  Gloss: I.saw theMP/thoseMP three dogMP
  Translation: I saw the/those three dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti (a) ttri kkàni
  Gloss: I.saw (to) three dogMP
  Translation: I saw three dogs
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Marìa nun kànta
  Gloss: Maria not sings
  Translation: Maria does not sing
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: Marìa ankòra nunn'a kantàtu (*a nun kantàtu)
  Gloss: Maria yet not has sung (has not sung)
  Translation: Maria hasn't sung, yet
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: stu bbèllu lìbbru
  Gloss: this beautiful book
  Translation: this beautiful book
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: stu lìbbru bbèllu
  Gloss: this book beautiful
  Translation: this beautiful book
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: sta màkina rrùssa
  Gloss: this car red
  Translation: this red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * màkina rrùssa sta
  Gloss: car red this
  Translation: this red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * màkina sta rrùssa
  Gloss: car this red
  Translation: this red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * rrùssa sta màkina
  Gloss: red this car
  Translation: this red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * rrùssa màkina sta
  Gloss: red car this
  Translation: this red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: sti tri mmàkini
  Gloss: these three cars
  Translation: these three cars
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * sti màkini tri
  Gloss: these cars three
  Translation: these three cars
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * màkini tri sti
  Gloss: cars three these
  Translation: these three cars
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * màkini sti tri
  Gloss: cars these three
  Translation: these three cars
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * tri sti màkini
  Gloss: three these cars
  Translation: these three cars
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * tri màkini sti
  Gloss: three cars these
  Translation: these three cars
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Cristina Guardiano The Q-marker precedes the verb. Polar questions without the Q-marker are sometimes accepted by some speakers, but very marginally. Forum
  Words: ki arrwàu Màrju?
  Gloss: what arrived Mario
  Translation: Has Mario arrived?
  Comment: Also accepted: Màrju ki arrwàu? (Hardly accepted: Màrju arrwàu?)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: * Màrju arrwàu ki?
  Gloss: Mario arrived what
  Translation: Has Mario arrived?
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: ki arrrwàu Màrju? B: se // arrwàu // se arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario? B: yes // he.arrived // yes he.arrived
  Translation: A: has Mario arrived? B: Yes (he has arrived)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: ki arrrwàu Màrju? B: se // arrwàu // se arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario? B: yes // he.arrived // yes he.arrived
  Translation: A: has Mario arrived? B: Yes (he has arrived)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: ki arrrwàu Màrju? B: se // arrwàu // se arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario? B: yes // he.arrived // yes he.arrived
  Translation: A: has Mario arrived? B: Yes (he has arrived)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: k'arrwàu kwarkarùnu? B: * arrwàu // kwarkarùnu arrwàu // se kwarkarùnu arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived someone B: he.arrived // someone arrived // yes someone arrived
  Translation: A: has anyone arrived? B: yes (someone arrived)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: k'arrwàu kwarkarùnu? B: se (pause) kwarkarùnu arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived someone B: yes someone arrived
  Translation: A: has anyone arrived? B: yes, someone arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: ki arrwàu Màrju? B: no
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario B: no
  Translation: A: Has Mario arrived? B: No
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: ki arrwàu Màrju? B: *nun
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario B: not
  Translation: A: Has Mario arrived? B: No
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: A: ki arrwàu Màrju? B: nunn'arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario B: not arrived
  Translation: A: has Mario arrived? B: no, he hasn't
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ki ti vivisti? Mi vippi vinu
  Gloss: what to.you drank2.S? To.me drank.1S wine
  Translation: What did you drink? I drank wine
  Comment: Bare indefinite mass nouns are hardly accepted in object position: only as an answer to a Wh-question or in negative/interrogative contexts
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ki ti vivisti? Mi vippi vinu
  Gloss: what to.you drank2.S? To.me drank.1S wine
  Translation: What did you drink? I drank wine
  Comment: Bare indefinite mass nouns are hardly accepted in object position: only as an answer to a Wh-question or in negative/interrogative contexts
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: ki ti vivìsti? Mi vìppi vìnu
  Gloss: what to.you drank2.S? To.me drank.1S wine
  Translation: What did you drink? I drank wine
  Comment: Bare indefinite mass nouns are hardly accepted in object position: only as an answer to a Wh-question or in negative/interrogative contexts
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: mi vìppi na pwòku ri vìnu / mi vìppi u vìnu
  Gloss: to.me drank.1S a little of wine / to.me drank.1S the wine
  Translation: I drank (some) wine // I drank the wine
  Comment: "na pwòku ri" (literally a little of) is normally used before indefinite mass and plural nouns. Its meaning is identical to the Italian partitive article (di+definite article). The article u, a, i, omophonous to the definite article but with no definite meaning, can be also used.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: m'akkattài vìnu e jàkkwa. *Mi vìppi vìnu ma lassài jàkkwa
  Gloss: to.me bought.1S wine and water. To.me drank.1S wine but left.1S water
  Translation: Intended: I bought wine and water. I drank the wine but I left the water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: m'akkattài vìnu e jàkkwa. Mi vìppi u vìnu ma lassài l'àkkwa
  Gloss: to.me bought.1S wine and water. To.me drank.1S the wine but left.1S the water
  Translation: I bought wine and water. I drank the wine but I left the water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: m'akkattài vìnu e jàkkwa. Mi vìppi u vìnu ma lassài l'àkkwa
  Gloss: to.me bought.1S wine and water. To.me drank.1S the wine but left.1S the water
  Translation: I bought wine and water. I drank the wine but I left the water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: m'akkattài vìnu e jàkkwa. *Mi vìppi vìnu ma lassài jàkkwa
  Gloss: to.me bought.1S wine and water. To.me drank.1S wine but left.1S water
  Translation: Intended: I bought wine and water. I drank the wine but I left the water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: m'akkattài vìnu e jàkkwa. Mi vìppi u vìnu ma lassài l'àkkwa
  Gloss: to.me bought.1S wine and water. To.me drank.1S the wine but left.1S the water
  Translation: I bought wine and water. I drank the wine but I left the water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: m'akkattài vìnu e jàkkwa. *Mi vìppi vìnu ma lassài jàkkwa
  Gloss: to.me bought.1S wine and water. To.me drank.1S wine but left.1S water
  Translation: Intended: I bought wine and water. I drank the wine but I left the water
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: *vìtti kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti nu kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti nu kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: *vìtti kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti nu kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S a dog
  Translation: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: *vìtti kàni
  Gloss: saw.1S dog
  Translation: Intended: I saw a dog
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: m'akkattài na màkina
  Gloss: to.me bought.1S a car
  Translation: I bought a car
  Comment: The singular count noun cannot be bare and can never have a plural-like reading
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnna ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S pen but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài a pìnna ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S the pen but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài a pìnna ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S the pen but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnna ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S pen but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài a pìnna ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S the pen but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu na pìnna e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnna ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3p a pen and a notebook. Took.1S pen but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were a pen and a notebook on the table. I took the pen but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti piccjwòtti ppi stràta
  Gloss: saw.1S boys on street
  Translation: I saw boys on the street
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti piccjwòtti ppi stràta
  Gloss: saw.1S boys on street
  Translation: I saw boys on the street
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: vìtti piccjwòtti ppi stràta
  Gloss: saw.1S boys on street
  Translation: I saw boys on the street
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vitti na pwòku ri piccjwòtti ppi strata
  Gloss: saw.1S a little of boys on street
  Translation: I saw boys on the street
  Comment: "na pwòku ri" (literally a little of) is normally used before indefinite mass and plural nouns. It usually translates the Italian partitive article (di+definite article).
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnni ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S pens but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài i pìnni ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S the pens but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài i pìnni ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S the pens but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnni ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S pens but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. Pigghjài i pìnni ma lassài u kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S the pens but left.1S the notebook
  Translation: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: supra o tàvulu c'èrinu ru pìnni e nu kwatèrnu. * Pigghjài pìnni ma lassài kwatèrnu
  Gloss: above the table there.were.3S two pens and a notebook. Took.1S pens but left.1S notebook
  Translation: Intended: there were two pens and a notebook on the table. I took the pens but I left the notebook
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Cristina Guardiano Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Cristina Guardiano Forum