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Swedish

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: swe
  latlong: 62,15  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Hunden sover.
  Gloss: dog.DEF sleeps
  Translation: The dog is sleeping
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 02_Verb Subject No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Nu sover hunden.
  Gloss: now sleeps dog.DEF
  Translation: Now the dog is sleeping
  Comment: Swedish has V2 properties in mainclauses - see the comment on German in the property definition
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 03_Verb Object Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Flickan äter en glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF eats an ice-cream
  Translation: The girl is eating an ice-cream.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 04_Object Verb No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Tidningen läser jag varje dag.
  Gloss: newspaper.DEF read I every day
  Translation: I read the newspaper every day.
  Comment: Swedish allows topics in first position, before the finite verb. O-V is only possible in certain contexts.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Flickan äter en glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF eats an ice-cream
  Translation: The girl is eating an ice-cream.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 06_Subject Object Verb No fredrik heinat Forum
  Comment: This word order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Nu äter flickan en glass.
  Gloss: now eats girl.DEF an ice-cream
  Translation: Now the girl is eating an ice-cream.
  Comment: Swedish has V2 properties in mainclauses - see the comment on German in the property definition
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 08_Verb Object Subject No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *Nu äter glass flickan.
  Gloss: now eats ice-cream girl.DEF
  Translation: Now the girls is eating ice-cream.
  Comment: V O S in not possibe in neutral contexts. VP topicalization may give this order, but then V2 requires that the finite auxiliary precede the subject: Ätit glass har flickan (redan gjort) 'eaten ice-cream has the girl (done already).
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 09_Object Subject Verb No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: En glass har flickan ätit.
  Gloss: an ice-cream has girl.DEF eaten
  Translation: The girl has eaten an ice-cream.
  Comment: O S V is possible only with a topicalized object and a finite auxiliary in V2 position.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Glassen åt flickan
  Gloss: ice-cream.DEF ate girl.DEF
  Translation: The ice-cream the girl ate.
  Comment: O V S is possible only with a topicalized object and the finite lexical verb in second position.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Flickan satt på bänken.
  Gloss: girl.DEF sat on bench.def
  Translation: The girl sat on the bench.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No fredrik heinat Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Det är en stor glass.
  Gloss: it is a big ice-cream
  Translation: It's a big ice-cream.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   14_Noun Adjective No fredrik heinat Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: tre grisar
  Gloss: three pigs
  Translation: three pigs
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 16_Noun Numeral No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *grisar tre
  Gloss: pigs three
  Translation: three pigs
  Comment: This order is not possible, but see property: N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite)
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: den här/denna grisen
  Gloss: this here/this pig.DEF
  Translation: this pig
  Comment: There is dialectal difference between the two demonstratives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: de här/dessa grisarna
  Gloss: these here/these pigs.DEF
  Translation: these pigs
  Comment: There is dialectal difference between the two demonstratives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *grisen denna/den här
  Gloss: pig.DEF this/this here
  Translation: this pig
  Comment: This order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: *grisarna de här/dessa
  Gloss: pigs.DEF these here/these
  Translation: these pigs
  Comment: This order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: flickans glass
  Gloss: girl.DEF.GEN ice-cream
  Translation: the girl's ice-cream
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: porträttet av kungen -- kungens porträtt
  Gloss: portrait.DEF of king.DEF -- king.DEF.GEN portrait
  Translation: the portrait of the king
  Comment: The genitive has broader usage: 19_Possessor Noun
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: slutet på historien --- historiens slut
  Gloss: end.DEF on history.DEF -- history.DEF.GEN end
  Translation: the end of the story
  Comment: Various prepositions can be used,
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: hennes glass
  Gloss: her ice-cream
  Translation: her ice-cream
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No fredrik heinat Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: en röd bil -- ett rött äpple --- den röda bilen -- det röda äpplet
  Gloss: a red.N-N.SG.INDF car -- a red.N.SG.INDF apple --- the red.DEF car.DEF -- the red.DEF apple.DEF
  Translation: a red car -- a red apple --- the red car -- the red apple
  Comment: Attributive adjectives agree with the noun in gender, number and definiteness.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: två röda bilar -- två röda äpplen --- de två röda bilarna -- de två röda äpplena
  Gloss: two red.PL cars -- two red.PL apples --- the two red.PL cars.DEF -- the two red.PL apples.DEF
  Translation: two red cars -- two red apples --- the two red cars -- the two red apples
  Comment: In plural, the adjective has the same form no matter gender and definiteness of the noun.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: bilen är röd -- äpplet är rött
  Gloss: car.DEF is red.N-N.SG -- apple.DEF is red.N.SG
  Translation: the car is red -- the apple is red
  Comment: Predicative adjectives agree with the subject in gender and number. There is no agreement for definiteness, cf. property: A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: bilarna är röda -- äpplena är röda
  Gloss: car.PL.DEF are red.PL -- apple.PL.DEF are red.PL
  Translation: the cars are red -- the apples are red
  Comment: Predicative adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number. In plural, the forms look the same.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: väldigt stor, ganska liten, mycket varm
  Gloss: very big, quite little, a lot warm
  Translation: very big, quite little, very warm
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: vägen är bred nog -- rak tillräckligt
  Gloss: road.DEF is broad enough -- straight enough
  Translation: the road is broad enough -- straight enough
  Comment: Only these two adjectives occur after predicative adjectives. They are disprefered after attributive adjectives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: ?en bred nog väg -- *en bred tillräckligt väg
  Gloss: a broad enough road -- a broad enough road
  Translation: a road broad enough
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Flickan har ätit en glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF has eaten an ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has eaten an ice-cream.
  Comment: 'Be' is not possible to use with perfect aspect:: *Flickan är ('is') ätit en glass.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Flickan sa att hon var sen.
  Gloss: girl.DEF said COMP she was late
  Translation: The girl said that she was late.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *Flickan sa hon var sen att
  Gloss: girl.DEF said she was late COMP
  Translation: The girl said that she was late.
  Comment: This order of complementizer and clause is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Jag var sen eftersom bussen gick sönder.
  Gloss: I was late because bus.DEF went broke
  Translation: I was late because the bus broke down.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: * Jag var sen, bussen gick sönder eftersom.
  Gloss: I was late, bus.DEF went broke because
  Translation: I was late because the bus broke down.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Extra Examples No fredrik heinat Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Det är två kakor i burken.
  Gloss: there are two cookies in jar.DEF
  Translation: There are two cookies in the jar.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *Det är kakor två i burken
  Gloss: there are cookies two in jar.DEF
  Comment: This order between noun and numeral isn't possible
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: De två kakorna är i burken.
  Gloss: the two cookies.DEF are in jar.DEF
  Translation: The two cookies are in the jar.
  Comment: For more on double definiteness, see "extra examples".
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *De kakorna två är i burken.
  Gloss: the cookies.DEF two are in jar.DEF
  Translation: The two cookies are in the jar.
  Comment: This order between noun and numeral isn't possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: Festen varade i dagarna tre.
  Gloss: party.DEF lasted in days.DEF three
  Translation: The party lasted three days.
  Comment: The use of a numeral after a definite noun indicating time, has an archaic ring to it. The standard expression would involve an indefinite noun: i tre dagar 'for three days'
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes fredrik heinat Double definiteness Forum
  Words: Berätta mer om de två aporna
  Gloss: tell more about DET two monkey.PL.DEF
  Translation: Tell me/us more about the two monkeys.
  Comment: If the noun is modified there are a determiner and a definiteness suffix on the noun. For more on double definiteness, see "extra examples"
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: De här/dessa fyra breven kom igår.
  Gloss: these here/these four letters.DEF arrived yesterday
  Translation: These four letters arrived yesterday
  Comment: There is dialectal difference between the two demonstratives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *Berätta mer om två aporna/*berätta mer om de två apor.
  Gloss: tell more about two monkey.PL.DEF/tell more about DET two monkeys
  Translation: Tell me/us more about the two monkeys.
  Comment: Both determiner and suffix are obligatory. For more on double definiteness, see "extra examples".
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Det är tre kakor i burken. / De tre kakorna är i burken..
  Gloss: There are three cookie.PL in jar.DEF / the three cookie.PL.DEF are in jar.DEF
  Translation: there are three cookies in the jar. / The three cookis are in the jar.
  Comment: There is no difference in plural marking on definite and indefinite nouns.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No fredrik heinat Forum
+ N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: det är två kakor i burken / De två kakorna är i burken.
  Gloss: There are two cookies in jar.DEF/ the two cookies.DEF are in jar.DEF
  Translation: there are two cookies in the jar. / The two cookies are in the jar.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts Yes fredrik heinat Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes fredrik heinat V2 affects the order between lexical verb and negation. Forum
  Words: Flickan har inte ätit glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF has NEG eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has not eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: The V2 property of Swedish makes the negation 'inte' precede the lexical verb if there is an auxiliary.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan kan inte ha ätit glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF can NEG have eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl cannot have eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: Negation follows the finite verb and precedes all non-finite verbs in main clauses. In subordinate clauses negation precedes all verbs, even finite verbs
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: Inte har flickan ätit glass.
  Gloss: NEG has girl.DEF eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has not eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: Negation can be topicalized.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes fredrik heinat V2 affects the order between lexical verb and negation. Forum
  Words: Flickan äter inte glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF eats NEG ice-cream
  Translation: The girl does not eat ice-cream.
  Comment: The V2 property of Swedish makes the finite verb precede the negation 'inte'.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan har inte ätit glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF has NEG eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has not eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: The V2 property of Swedish makes the finite verb precede the negation 'inte'.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No fredrik heinat Forum
+ Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: Flickan är inte doktor.
  Gloss: girl.DEF is NEG doctor.
  Translation: The girl is not a doctor.
  Comment: Negation follows the finite copula.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No fredrik heinat Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No fredrik heinat Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: De här/dessa röda äpplena smakar gott.
  Gloss: DEM red.PL apples taste well
  Translation: These red apples taste good.
  Comment: There is dialectal difference between the two demonstratives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No fredrik heinat Forum
  Words: *de här/dessa studenter närvarande
  Gloss: DEM students present
  Translation: These students presents
  Comment: This order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No fredrik heinat Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No fredrik heinat Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No fredrik heinat Forum
+ V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Comment: See property definition.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second Yes fredrik heinat Forum
  Comment: See property definition.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No fredrik heinat Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No fredrik heinat Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No fredrik heinat Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No fredrik heinat Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No fredrik heinat The object after the verb 'ha' (have) can take a bare singular noun, as in "Vi har hund/bil." (We have dog/car) "We have a dog/ a car." Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No fredrik heinat Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No fredrik heinat Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No fredrik heinat Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No fredrik heinat Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No fredrik heinat Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No fredrik heinat Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No fredrik heinat Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes fredrik heinat Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No fredrik heinat Forum