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Teramano

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: ita
  latlong: 42.661443,13.698535  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Mariə arrivó tardə
  Gloss: Mary arrived late
  Translation: Mary arrived late
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten three pizzaMP
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: partó Mariə
  Gloss: left Mary
  Translation: Mary left
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: vedivə na kasə
  Gloss: I.saw a house
  Translation: I saw a house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: vedivə la kasə virdə
  Gloss: I.saw the house green
  Translation: I saw the green house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: na kasə vedivə
  Gloss: a house I.saw
  Translation: I saw a house
  Comment: This is a marked order used to put emphasis on the fronted noun.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la kasə virdə vedivə
  Gloss: the house green I.saw
  Translation: I saw the green house
  Comment: This is a marked order used to put emphasis on the fronted noun.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Mariə vidó na kasə
  Gloss: Mary saw a house
  Translation: Mary saw a house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: li ʃtudintə annə skrittə li latterə
  Gloss: the students have written the letters
  Translation: the students wrote the letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: lu puliziottə kulpó lu ladrə
  Gloss: the policeman hit the thief
  Translation: the policeman hit the thief
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Mariə maɲó na bananə
  Gloss: Mary ate a banana
  Translation: Mary ate a banana
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: lu puliziottə lu ladrə kulpó
  Gloss: the policeman the thief hit
  Translation: the policeman hit the thief
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 07_Verb Subject Object No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: maɲó Mariə na bananə
  Gloss: she.ate Mary a banana
  Translation: Mary ate a banana
  Comment: Marked order in questions only
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: maɲó na bananə Mariə
  Gloss: ate a banana Mary
  Translation: Mary ate a banana
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: kulpó lu ladrə lu puliziottə
  Gloss: hit the thief the policeman
  Translation: the policeman hit the thief
  Comment: Marked form
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: na bananə Mariə maɲó
  Gloss: a banana Mary ate
  Translation: Mary ate a banana
  Comment: Marked order
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: lu ladrə lu puliziottə kulpó
  Gloss: the thief the policeman hit
  Translation: the policeman hit the thief
  Comment: Marked order
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *na bananə maɲó Mariə
  Gloss: a banana ate Mary
  Translation: Mary ate a banana
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so ʃitə kə Mariə
  Gloss: I.am gone.out with Mary
  Translation: I went out with Mary
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so jitə a lu marə
  Gloss: I.am gone to the sea
  Translation: I went to the sea
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *so ʃitə Mariə kə
  Gloss: I.am gone.out Mary with
  Translation: I went out with Mary
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə na bona paʃtə
  Gloss: I.am eaten a good pasta
  Translation: I ate nice pasta
  Comment: Only certain adjectives can precede a noun
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə na bona paʃtə
  Gloss: I.am eaten a good pasta
  Translation:  I ate nice pasta
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so kompratə na maja verdə
  Gloss: I.am bought a shirt green
  Translation: I bought a green shirt
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so kompratə na verdə maja
  Gloss: I.am bought a green shirt
  Translation: I bought a green shirt
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so ʃkrittə tre latterə
  Gloss: I.am written three letters
  Translation: I wrote three letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 16_Noun Numeral No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *so ʃkrittə latterə tre
  Gloss: I.am written letters three
  Translation: I wrote three letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so lettə ʃti latterə
  Gloss: I.am read these letters
  Translation:  I read these letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *so lettə latterə ʃti
  Gloss: I.am read letters these
  Translation: I read these letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 19_Possessor Noun No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *də Paolə lu librə
  Gloss: of Paul the book
  Translation: Paul's book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: lu librə də Paolə
  Gloss: the book of Paul
  Translation: Paul's book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *lu mi librə
  Gloss: the my book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *mi librə
  Gloss: my book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: lu libr-a mi / lu librə mi
  Gloss: the book.M.SG-A my.SG / the book.M.SG my.SG
  Translation:  my book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la bambul-a mi / *la bambulə mi
  Gloss: the doll.F.SG-A my.SG / the doll.F.SG my.SG
  Translation: my doll
  Comment: The nature of the /a/ used in between the noun and the pronominal possessor is not completely explained yet, although there are prosodic theories available (Passino 2014 among others). It is optional in the case of a masculine noun preceding the pronominal possessor but it is obligatory in the case of a feminine noun preceding the pronominal possessor.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: mi so maɲatə nu timballə bbonə
  Gloss: to.me I.am eaten a timballo.M.SG good.M.SG
  Translation: I ate good timballo
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: mi so maɲatə du timbillə bbunə
  Gloss: to.me I.am eaten two timballo.M.PL good.M.PL
  Translation: I ate two good timballos
  Comment: Teramano does not present agreement in the adjective since the language underwent neutralization of the final vowel to a schwa. The final vowel would be the one agreeing in gender. However, the number agreement is present in the stem, the stressed vowel is [+high] when the word is plural. Plural agreement is present.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ʃtu timballə e bbonə
  Gloss: this timballo.M.SG is good.M.SG
  Translation: this timballo is good
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃti timbillə e bbunə
  Gloss: these timballo.M.PL is good.M.PL
  Translation: these timballos are good
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Mariə e troppə addə
  Gloss: Mario is too tall
  Translation: Mario is too tall
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Mariə e addə assi
  Gloss: Mario is tall very
  Translation: Mario is very tall
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Paulə a telefunatə a la kasə
  Gloss: Paul has called to the home
  Translation: Paul called home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Paulə a jitə a la kasə
  Gloss: Paul has gone to the home
  Translation: Paul went home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: noji avamə telefunatə a la kasə
  Gloss: we have called to the home
  Translation: we called home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: noji samə jitə a la kase
  Gloss: we are gone to the house
  Translation: we went home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ti so dettə kə Mariə a ʃitə
  Gloss: to.you I.am told that Maria has left
  Translation: I told you that Maria left
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: nə zo menutə pekkə Mariə a ʃitə
  Gloss: not I.am come because Maria has left
  Translation: I did not come because Maria left
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
+ N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: tʃi ʃta tri sidʒdʒə dentra la kasə
  Gloss: there are three chairs in the house
  Translation: there are three chairs in the house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *tʃi ʃta sidʒdʒə tri dentra la kasə
  Gloss: there are chairs three in the house
  Translation: there are three chairs in the house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə li tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten the three pizzas
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: li tre pizzə arrivitə
  Gloss: the three pizzas arrived
  Translation: the three pizzas arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *so maɲatə li pizzə tre
  Gloss: I.am eaten the pizzas three
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *li pizzə tre arrivitə
  Gloss: the pizzas three arrived
  Translation: the three pizzas arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə li tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten the three pizzas
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: li tre pizzə arrivitə
  Gloss: the three pizzas arrived
  Translation: the three pizzas arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə ʃti tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten these three pizzas
  Translation: I ate these three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃti tre pizzə arrivitə
  Gloss: these three pizzas arrived
  Translation: these three pizzas arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten three pizzas
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: tre pizzə arrivitə
  Gloss: three pizzas arrived
  Translation: three pizzas arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə li/ʃti tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten theMP/theseMP three pizzaMP
  Translation: I ate the/these three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə li/ʃti tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten the/these three pizzas
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə li/ʃti tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten theMP/theseMP three pizzaMP
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten three pizzaMP
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so maɲatə li/ʃti tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten theMP/theseMP three pizzaMP
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten three pizzaMP
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Lenə nun kutʃinə
  Gloss: Elena not cooks
  Translation: Elena does not cook
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: Lenə ankorə n-a kutʃinitə
  Gloss: Elena yet not-has cooked
  Translation: Elena did not cook yet
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ʃta bella bambulə
  Gloss: this beautiful doll
  Translation: this beautiful doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *ʃta roʃa bambulə / ʃta bambula roʃə
  Gloss: this red doll / this doll red
  Translation: this red doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ʃta bambula bellə
  Gloss: this doll beautiful
  Translation: this beautiful doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃta bambula roʃə
  Gloss: this doll red
  Translation: this red doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *bambula bellə ʃta
  Gloss: doll beautiful this
  Translation: this beautiful doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *bambula roʃə ʃta
  Gloss: doll red this
  Translation: this red doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *bambula ʃta bellə
  Gloss: doll this beautiful
  Translation: this beautiful doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *bambula ʃta roʃə
  Gloss: doll this red
  Translation: this red doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *bella ʃta bambulə
  Gloss: beautiful this doll
  Translation: this beautiful doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *roʃə ʃta bambulə
  Gloss: red this doll
  Translation: this red doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *bellə bambula ʃta
  Gloss: beautiful doll this
  Translation: this beautiful doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *roʃə bambula ʃta
  Gloss: red doll this
  Translation: this red doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ʃti tre bambulə
  Gloss: these three dolls
  Translation: these three dolls
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *ʃti bambulə tre
  Gloss: these dolls three
  Translation: these three dolls
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *bambulə tre ʃti
  Gloss: dolls three these
  Translation: these three dolls
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *bambulə ʃti tre
  Gloss: dolls these three
  Translation: these three dolls
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *tre ʃti bambulə
  Gloss: three these dolls
  Translation: these three dolls
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *tre bambulə ʃti
  Gloss: three dolls these
  Translation: these three dolls
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ke a kutʃinitə Lenə
  Gloss: what has cooked Elena
  Translation: Did Elena cook?
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *a kutʃinitə Lenə ke
  Gloss: has cooked Elena what
  Translation: Did Elena cook?
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ke a kutʃinitə Lenə? - si (Lenə a kutʃinitə)
  Gloss: what has cooked Elena - yes (Elena has cooked)
  Translation: did Elena cook? - Yes (Elena has cooked)
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ke maɲə Lenə? - (si) maɲə (Lenə)
  Gloss: what eat Elena? - (yes) eats (Elena)
  Translation: does Elena eat? - (yes Elena) eats
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ke a kutʃinitə Lenə? - (si Lenə) a (kutʃinitə)
  Gloss: what has cooked Elena - (yes Elena) has (cooked)
  Translation: did Elena cook? - (Yes Elena) has (cooked)
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ke a kutʃinitə Lenə? - (si Lenə) a kutʃinitə
  Gloss: what has cooked Elena - (yes Elena) has cooked
  Translation: did Elena cook? - (Yes Elena) has cooked
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: ke a kutʃinitə Lenə? - si (Lenə) a kutʃinitə
  Gloss: what has cooked Elena - yes (Elena) has cooked
  Translation: did Elena cook? - Yes (Elena) has cooked
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k'-arrivitə kakkedunə? - (Si kakkedunə) arrivitə
  Gloss: what arrived someone? - (Yes someone) arrived
  Translation: did someone arrive? - (Yes someone) arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k' arrivitə kakkedunə? - Si kakkedunə arrivitə
  Gloss: what arrived someone? - Yes someone arrived
  Translation: did someone arrive? - Yes someone arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k' arrivitə Lenə? - None/No
  Gloss: what arrived Elena? - No/No
  Translation: did Elena arrive? - No
  Comment: Generally, there is not a special negative particle; however, when we want to emphasize the negation we can use a special particle (nonə).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k' arrivitə Lenə? - No
  Gloss: what arrived Elena? - not
  Translation: did Elena arrive? - No
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k' arrivitə Lenə? - N' arrivitə
  Gloss: what arrived Elena? - not arrived
  Translation: did Elena arrive? - no, she hasn't arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k-i cumpratə? - *So kumpratə vinə
  Gloss: what-have.you bought? - I.have bought wine
  Translation: what did you buy? - I bought wine
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: k-i kumpratə? - so kumpratə vinə e lattə
  Gloss: what-you.are bought? - I.am bought wine and milk
  Translation: what did you buy? - I bought wine and milk
  Comment: EXAMPLE PROVIDED BY IARA MANTENUTO. In a coordinated construction it is possible to have bare nouns without articles.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k-i cumpratə? - So kumpratə lu vinə
  Gloss: what-have.you bought? - I.have bought the wine
  Translation: what did you buy? - I bought wine
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: k-i kumpratə? - so kumpratə vinə e lattə
  Gloss: what-you.are bought? - I.am bought wine and milk
  Translation: what did you buy? - I bought wine and milk
  Comment: EXAMPLE PROVIDED BY IARA MANTENUTO. In a coordinated construction it is possible to have bare nouns without articles.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: k-i kumpratə? - so kumpratə vinə e lattə
  Gloss: what-you.are bought? - I.am bought wine and milk
  Translation: what did you buy? - I bought wine and milk
  Comment: EXAMPLE PROVIDED BY IARA MANTENUTO. In a coordinated construction it is possible to have bare nouns without articles.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: k-i cumpratə? - So kumpratə lu vinə
  Gloss: what-have.you bought? - I.have bought the wine
  Translation: what did you buy? - I bought wine
  Comment: EXAMPLE PROVIDED BY IARA MANTENUTO.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
+ w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: So kumpratə lattə e vinə. *So bivutə lattə ma so laʃatə vinə.
  Gloss: I.am bought milk and wine. I.am drank milk but I.am left wine.
  Translation: I bought milk and wine. I drank the milk but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so kumpratə lattə e vinə. So bivutə lu lattə ma so laʃatə lu vinə.
  Gloss: I.am bought milk and wine. I.am drank the milk but I.am left the wine
  Translation: I bought milk and wine. I drank the milk but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so kumpratə lattə e vinə. *So bivutə lattə ma so laʃatə vinə.
  Gloss: I.am bought milk and wine. I.am drank milk but I.am left wine.
  Translation: I bought milk and wine. I drank the milk but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so kumpratə lattə e vinə. So bivutə lu lattə ma so laʃatə lu vinə.
  Gloss: I.am bought milk and wine. I.am drank the milk but I.am left the wine.
  Translation: I bought milk and wine. I drank the milk but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so kumpratə lattə e vinə. *So bivutə lattə ma so laʃatə vinə.
  Gloss: I.am bought milk and wine. I.am drank milk but I.am left wine.
  Translation: I bought milk and wine. I drank the milk but I left the wine.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so kumpratə na skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought a mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so kumpratə skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so kumpratə na skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought a mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so kumpratə skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so kumpratə na skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought a mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so cumpratə skamorzə
  Gloss: I.am bought mozzarella
  Translation: I bought mozzarella
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so difesə nu leonə
  Gloss: I.am defended a lion
  Translation: I defended a lion
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pollə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked chicken but she.has bought pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə nu pollə ma a kumpratə na pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked a chicken but she.has bought a pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə nu pollə ma a kumpratə na pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked a chicken but she.has bought a pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pollə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked chicken but she.has bought pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinatə nu pollə ma a kumpratə na pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked a chicken but she.has bought a pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta nu pollə e na pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pollə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked chicken but she.has bought pizza.
  Translation: in the kitchen there is chicken and pizza. Elena cooked the chicken but she bought the pizza.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *so vistə gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so vistə li gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen the hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw the chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so vistə li gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen the hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw the chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so vistə gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so vistə li gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen the hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw the chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so vistə gallinə a pizzikirsə
  Gloss: I.am seen hens to pecking.each.other
  Translation: I saw chickens pecking each other
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e du pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pullə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena has cooked chickens but she.has bought pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə li pullə ma a kumpratə li pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked the chickens but she.has bought the pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə li pullə ma a kumpratə li pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked the chickens but she.has bought the pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e du pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pullə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena has cooked chickens but she.has bought pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e na pizzə. Lenə a kutʃinitə li pullə ma a kumpratə li pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena has cooked the chickens but she.has bought the pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are a chicken and a pizza. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la a la kutʃinə tʃi ʃta du pullə e du pizzə. *Lenə a kutʃinitə pullə ma a kumpratə pizzə.
  Gloss: there at the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena has cooked chickens but she.has bought pizzas.
  Translation: in the kitchen there are two chickens and two pizzas. Elena cooked the chickens but she bought the pizzas.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *dʒuvannə aguardə lunə
  Gloss: Giovanni watch.3SG moon.SG.F
  Translation: ‘Giovanni watches the moon.’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: dʒuvannə aguardə la lunə
  Gloss: Giovanni watch.3SG the.SG.F moon.SG.F
  Translation: ‘Giovanni watches the moon.’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so invititə dʒuvannə
  Gloss: be.1SG invited Giovanni
  Translation: ‘I have invited Giovanni.’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: i. so mətitə D'Annunzijə ii. *so mətitə lu D'Annunzijə iii. so nkuntratə li Mantenutə
  Gloss:  be.1SG invited D’Annunzio ii. be.1SG invited the.SG.M D’Annunzio iii. be.1SG met the.PL.M Mantenuto
  Translation:  ‘I have invited D’Annunzio.’ ii. be.1SG invited the.SG.M D’Annunzio iii. ‘I have met the Mantenutos.’
  Comment: Only when plural, not even if we are dealing with a proper name which is feminine singular or the name of a person like Mary/John…plurals only both feminine and masculine.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so nkuntratə Maria vikkjə
  Gloss: be.1SG met Maria old.SG.F
  Translation: ‘I met the old Maria.’
  Comment: Contrasting reading (with a younger Marie)
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: i. *so nkuntratə la Maria vikkjə ii. so nkuntratə lla Maria vikkjə
  Gloss: i. be.1SG met the.SG.F Maria old.SG.F ii. be.1SG met that.SG.F Maria old.SG.F
  Translation: ‘I have met that old Maria.’
  Comment: Possible with the demonstrative but not with the definite article
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w11a Order A--PN in object position No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: i. *so nkuntratə vikkjə dʒuvannə ii. *so nkuntratə bellə Markə
  Gloss: i. be.1SG met old.SG.M Gianni ii. be.1SG met beautiful.SG.M Marco
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: i. so nkuntratə dʒuvannə vikkjə ii. so nkuntratə Markə bellə
  Gloss: i. be.1SG met Gianni old.SG.M ii. be.1SG met Marco beautiful.SG.M
  Translation: i. ‘I have met the old Gianni.’ ii. ‘I have met the beautiful Marco.’
  Comment: Possible only when there is a contrastive reading.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so bevutə lu vinə
  Gloss: be.1SG drank the.SG.M wine.SG.M
  Translation: ‘I drank wine.’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *so bevutə vinə lu
  Gloss: be.1SG drank wine.SG.M the.SG.M
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so nguntratə ddu ummənə e na fammənə. // so mətitə la fammənə a lu merkatə.
  Gloss: be.1SG met two man.PL.M and a.SG.F woman.SG.F // be.1SG invited the.SG.F woman.SG.F to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘I met two men and a woman. I invited the woman to the market.’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: * so nguntratə ddu ummənə e na fammənə. // so mətitə fammənə a lu merkatə.
  Gloss: be.1SG met two man.PL.M and a.SG.F woman.SG.F // be.1SG invited woman.SG.F to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: so nguntratə ddu ummənə e na fammənə. // so mətitə li ummənə a lu merkatə.
  Gloss: be.1SG met two man.PL.M and a.SG.F woman.SG.F // be.1SG invited the.PL.M man.PL.M to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘I met two men and a woman. I invited the men to the market.’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *so nguntratə ddu ummənə e na fammənə. // so mətitə ummənə a lu merkatə.
  Gloss: be.1SG met two man.PL.M and a.SG.F woman.SG.F // be.1SG invited man.PL.M to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: siŋo, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: Miss that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Miss, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: la siŋo, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: the.SG.F Miss that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Miss, can you come to the market?’
  Comment: It can be used but with irony.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: o siŋo, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: hey Miss that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Hey miss, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: dʒuva, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: Giova that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Giova, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: *lu dʒuva, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: the.SG.M Giova that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: o dʒuva, kə pu mənə a lu merkatə?
  Gloss: hey Giova that can come.3SG to the.SG.M market.SG.M
  Translation: ‘Hey Giova, can you come to the market?’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: wajə, passatəmə ssa pallə!
  Gloss: kid.PL.M give3PL.me that.SG.F ball.SG.F
  Translation: ‘Kids, give me that ball!’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Iara Mantenuto Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Iara Mantenuto Forum
+ w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Iara Mantenuto Forum
  Words: o wajə, passatəmə ssa pallə!
  Gloss: hey kid.PL.M give3PL.me that.SG.F ball.SG.F
  Translation: ‘Hey kids, give me that ball!’
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto