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Tlingit

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: tli
  latlong: 58,-134  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: wé shaawát sha-ka-w-0-dzi-yaa
  Gloss: DEM.MDIST woman head-horiz.surface-PFV-3.A-CLF[+D,s,+I]-comb
  Translation: the woman combed her hair
  Comment: Lit. "the woman hair-combed".
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 02_Verb Subject Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: x̱ʼa-w-0-di-taan wé ḵáa
  Gloss: mouth-PFV-3.A-CLF[+D,0,+I]-carry DEM.MDIST man
  Translation: the man spoke
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 03_Verb Object Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: woonáa wé keitl
  Gloss: it(P).died DEM.MDIST dog
  Translation: that dog died
  Comment: Verb morphology: 0-wu-ÿa-náa 3P-PFV-CLF[−D,0,+I]-die
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 04_Object Verb Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: yaaw aawaxítl
  Gloss: herring it.he.raked
  Translation: he raked herring
  Comment: Verb morphology: a-wu-0-ÿa-xítl 3.P-PFV-3.A-CLF[−D,0,+I]-fish.with.rake
  Contributor: James Crippen
  Words: seew daak=0-wu-si-taan
  Gloss: rain falling=3.P-PFV-CLF[−D,s,+I]-carry
  Translation: rain fell; it rained
  Comment: The verb is an unaccusative intransitive. With the preverb daak= the meaning is precipitation rather than carrying.
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: wé shaawát-ch 0-wu-0-si-teen xóots
  Gloss: DEM.MDIST woman-ERG 3P-PFV-3A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see brown.bear
  Translation: that woman saw a brown bear
  Comment: SVO is one of the two most common word orders in Tlingit, although all are possible and syntactically unmarked.
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: wé shaawát-ch xóots a-w-0-siteen
  Gloss: DEM.MDIST woman-ERG brown.bear 3P-PFV-3A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see
  Translation: that woman saw a brown bear
  Comment: SOV is one of the two most common word orders in Tlingit, although all are possible and syntactically unmarked. (Examples from Cable 2008.)
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 07_Verb Subject Object Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: a-wu-0-si-teen wé shaawát-ch xóots
  Gloss: 3P-PFV-3A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see DEM.MDIST woman-ERG brown.bear
  Translation: that woman saw a brown bear
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 08_Verb Object Subject Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: a-wu-0-si-teen xóots wé shaawát-ch
  Gloss: 3P-PFV-3A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see brown.bear DEM.MDIST woman-ERG
  Translation: that woman saw a brown bear
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: xóots wé shaawát-ch 0-wu-0-si-teen
  Gloss: brown.bear DEM.MDIST woman-ERG 3.P-PFV-3.A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see
  Translation: that woman saw the brown bear
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 10_Object Verb Subject Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: xóots a-w-0-si-teen wé shaawát-ch
  Gloss: brown.bear 3.P-PFV-3.A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see DEM.MDIST woman-ERG
  Translation: that woman saw the brown bear
  Contributor: James Crippen
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No James Crippen Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: yaa hít-xʼ
  Gloss: DEM.PROX house-LOC
  Translation: in this house
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: yées ḵáa
  Gloss: young man
  Translation: boy, young man
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: cháatl xookw
  Gloss: halibut dried
  Translation: dried halibut
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: tléináx̱ ḵáa
  Gloss: one.human man
  Translation: one man
  Comment: There are separate numerals for humans, with a -náx̱ suffix that may be related to the -náx̱ ~ -nax̱ allative case suffix.
  Contributor: James Crippen
  Words: tléixʼ yéil
  Gloss: one raven
  Translation: one raven
  Contributor: James Crippen
   16_Noun Numeral No James Crippen Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: yaa lingít
  Gloss: DEM.PROX person
  Translation: this person
  Contributor: James Crippen
   18_Noun Demonstrative No James Crippen Forum
   19_Possessor Noun Yes James Crippen Forum
   20_Noun Possessor No James Crippen Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No James Crippen Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No James Crippen Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective Yes James Crippen Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No James Crippen Forum
  Words: ḵúnáx̱ aakʼé
  Gloss: very good
  Translation: very good
  Comment: This is not accepted by some speakers, who prefer the verb « yakʼéi » “it.is.good” instead of the adjective. True adjectives are a very small, restricted class in Tlingit.
  Contributor: James Crippen
  Words: cháatl xookw
  Gloss: halibut dry
  Translation: dried halibut
  Comment: There are probably only five postnominal adjectives in Tlingit: _ tlein "large, big", _ kʼátskʼu "small, little", _ yádi "childlike, small", _ xookw “dry", _ ḵ'áatl' "thin (flat obj.)".
  Contributor: James Crippen
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No James Crippen Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause No James Crippen Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer Yes James Crippen Forum
   Extra Examples Yes Chris Collins Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes James Crippen Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes James Crippen Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix Yes James Crippen Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No James Crippen Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No James Crippen Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: yaa lingít tlein
  Gloss: DEM.MDIST old dog
  Translation: that old dog
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes James Crippen Forum
  Words: yaa lingít tlein
  Gloss: DEM.PROX person big
  Translation: this big/important person
  Contributor: James Crippen
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No James Crippen Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No James Crippen Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No James Crippen Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No James Crippen Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No James Crippen Forum