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Tommo-So

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: dds
  latlong: 14.8297,-3.035  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Mòòmíyó=gɛ ɲ̀jó=gɛ=nɛ mànd-áa=ỳ.
  Gloss: scorpion=DEF mat=DEF=OBL disappear-PFV=COP
  Translation: ‘The scorpion disappeared under the mat’ (251: 434b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   02_Verb Subject No Laura McPherson Forum
   03_Verb Object No Laura McPherson Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Mí áíH=ɲ̀ màŋgóró ób-aa=be-m.
  Gloss: 1SG.PRO friend=OBJ mango give-PFV=be.PST-1SG
  Translation: ‘I gave my friend a mango’ (19: 6b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   05_Subject Verb Object No Laura McPherson Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Ìyǎy=gɛ àn-ná=ɲ̀ ɔ̀mɔ́ kán-aa=be.
  Gloss: girl=DEF male-HUM.SG=OBJ present do-PFV=be.PST
  Translation: ‘The girl gave the man a present’ (463: 876a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   07_Verb Subject Object No Laura McPherson Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Laura McPherson Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Laura McPherson Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Laura McPherson Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Laura McPherson Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: NààL gɛ́m=gɛ ɛ̀nɛ́=gɛ gèŋgèL=nɛ=wɔ.
  Gloss: cow black=DEF goat=DEF beside=OBL=is
  Translation: ‘The black cow is next to the goat’ (252: 438b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   13_Adjective Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: yàà-nàL ɛ̀sú=gɛ
  Gloss: woman-HUM.SG pretty=DEF
  Translation: ‘the pretty woman’ (160: 240a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   15_Numeral Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: gámmá néé-go
  Gloss: cat two-ADV
  Translation: ‘two cats’ (124: 159a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Gìnɛ́=gɛ
  Gloss: house=DEF
  Translation: ‘The house’ (161: 241c).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Sáná jàndùlùL
  Gloss: Sana donkey
  Translation: ‘Sana’s donkey’ (371: 668a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   20_Noun Possessor No Laura McPherson Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: ìsé ḿmɔ
  Gloss: dog 1sgPoss
  Translation: my dog
  Comment: post-nominal possessors do not interact tonally with the noun
  Contributor: Laura McPherson
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Laura McPherson Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Laura McPherson Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Gìnɛ̀L sáy-ni ɛ̀sú néé-go=sɛ-m.
  Gloss: house very pretty two-ADV=have-1SG
  Translation: ‘I have two very pretty houses’ (163: 249a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   A 04_Adjective Degree No Laura McPherson Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection Yes Laura McPherson Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause No Laura McPherson Forum
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Gɔ́ɔ́ íg-go=wɔ-m=gɛ y-àá=wɔ.
  Gloss: dance know-ADV=be-1SG=COMP see-PFV=be
  Translation: ‘He saw that I know how to dance’ (531: 1004b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause No Laura McPherson Forum
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Àná=gɛ=diyɛ yò-ì-ɛ̀n.
  Gloss: rain=DEF=for enter-PFV.L-3PL
  Translation: ‘They went in because of the rain’ (259: 456a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Extra Examples NA Cristina Guardiano Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Laura McPherson Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: jàndúlu tɛ́mɛ̀ndɛ̀=le pɛ́-nnɔ̀ sígɛ́(-go) bándáŋkálá=nɛ kɔ́-ɛ̀ⁿ.
  Gloss: donkey 100=ASSOC 10-5 more courtyard=OBL be.PROX-3PL
  Translation: ‘There are 150 donkeys in the courtyard’ (169: 264).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Laura McPherson Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Jàndúlu tààndú(-go) bándáŋkálá=nɛ=kɔ́-ɛ̀n.
  Gloss: donkey 3(-ADV) courtyard=OBL=be.PROX-3PL
  Translation: ‘Three donkeys are in the courtyard’ (167: 257b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: gámmá néé-go=gɛ=mbe
  Gloss: cat two-ADV=DEF=PL
  Translation: ‘the two cats’ (125: 161c).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: gàmmàL nèè-gòL nɔ̀=mbé
  Gloss: cat two-ADV this=PL
  Translation: ‘these two cats’ (123: 157c).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Laura McPherson Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Laura McPherson Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Laura McPherson Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Laura McPherson Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Laura McPherson Forum
+ Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: mí bàbèL nàmá tɛ̀m-éélè=gɛ
  Gloss: 1SG.PRO uncle meat eat-NEG.IMPF=DEF
  Translation: ‘my uncle who doesn’t eat meat’ (133: 178a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification Yes Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Laura McPherson Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Laura McPherson Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Laura McPherson Forum
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: gìnɛ̀L kàndàL ní
  Gloss: house new that
  Translation: ‘that new house’ (123: 157b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Laura McPherson Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Laura McPherson Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Laura McPherson Forum
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: gàmmàL nèè-gòL nɔ̀=mbé
  Gloss: cat two-ADV this=PL
  Translation: ‘these two cats’ (123: 157c).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: TàgàL nɔ̀=mbé ǹnɔ́-go ɛ̀sú-go=wɔ-ɛ̀ⁿ
  Gloss: Shoe this=PL 5-ADV pretty-ADV=be-3PL
  Translation: ‘Five of these shoes are pretty.’ ‘These five shoes are pretty’ (203: 334b).
  Comment: “While some consultants say that both orders mean the same thing, others report that putting the numeral after determiners gives a partitive meaning” (203). From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Laura McPherson Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Laura McPherson Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Laura McPherson Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Ííyé [dìgɛ̀L nàmL] yɛ́llɛ̀=ma.
  Gloss: today evening sun come.IMPF=or?
  Translation: ‘Will he come this evening?’ (414: 770b).
  Comment: “place the question/disjunctive clitic =ma at the end of a sentence, which literally means ‘or’. This is a logical particle to use, since a yes/no question essential asks if the statement is true or is it not true; it is questioning by omission (‘is it true or...?’). As before, I gloss =ma as ‘or?’ indicating its double status as a disjunction and question marker” (415). From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Laura McPherson Forum
+ Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Laura McPherson Forum
  Words: Ú ɲ́j-ìyò-dɛ̀-w↑
  Gloss: 2SG.PRO lie.down-MP-IMPF-2SG.S
  Translation: ‘Are you going to bed?’ (414: 770a).
  Comment: The arrow marks the rising intonation. From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Laura McPherson Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Laura McPherson Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle No Laura McPherson Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Laura McPherson Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Laura McPherson Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb Yes Laura McPherson Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Laura McPherson Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Laura McPherson Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle No Laura McPherson Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Laura McPherson Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Laura McPherson Forum